Collecting, drying and storage of herbs
Herbs are most often applied in the form of water extracts (infusions and broths), spirit tinctures and powders. Usually they are trained from the dried-up grass, leaves, flowers or buds, fruits, seeds, bark and roots. But the best dosage form is the fresh juice received when squeezing from different parts of plants. If there is opportunity to prepare such juice, then they should be preferred to all other forms.
In house situation fresh juice is prepared, milling small cut parts of plants via the meat grinder or the juice extractor. The received watery gruel then is wrung out through piece of dense fabric, the rest is mixed with small amount of water and once again wrung out. The wrung-out juice contains all soluble compound components of plants in water.
When drying fresh plants their medicinal properties in relative measure remain. Dry fresh parts of plants in the shaded aired places and special drying cabinets. It is necessary to avoid drying on bright sun and at high temperature.
Well dried up raw materials are possible istoloch in mortar and to accept inside in the form of powders, mixing them with small amount of water, milk, honey and other liquids. Tinctures (tincture) represent extract from medicinal raw materials of giro - and water-soluble connections, received by means of the alcohol or alcohol divorced water.
The most common and reasonable form of application of herbs are freshly cooked infusions and broths. Leaves, flowers and other parts of plants from which components are easily taken are usually made boiled water and draw some time. The received infusion is filtered and depending on appointment drunk hot or cold. Broth is made of odrevesnevshy parts of plants which difficult bulk up and slowly extracted. They are filled in with water of room temperature, insisted 6-8 hours and then boiled on slow fire. Infusions and broths – the most preferable form of the use of medical plants also because they can easily be prepared in house conditions.
Of course, independently it is possible to prepare infusions, broths and spirit tinctures only from those herbs which do not contain strong and toxic agents and which can be accepted for a long time, without being afraid of harmful effects. If the disease demands treatment by strong herbs, then the doctor has to see off it.
When collecting plants it must be kept in mind that active ingredients in them are distributed unevenly and collect in different parts. Therefore prepare, as a rule, not all plant entirely. Besides, accumulation of active ingredients happens only in certain phase of development of plant: at the beginning of blossoming, at fructification, in the end or the beginning of vegetation. Therefore collecting parts of plants is carried out to strictly certain time. For example, bark of trees and bushes is cut off during active sokodvizheniye in spring months, underground parts dig out late fall.
Preparation of plants almost always needs to be conducted in the morning, in sunny weather when dew has already evaporated. Elevated parts are mown or cut off, underground – are dug out by shovel, flowers and berries are picked only manually. The collected raw materials need to be subjected to immediate drying and only in extreme cases leave it without drying no more than 10-12 hours. Plants after their drying have to be stored in specially allotted places, without moisture access.
Kidneys should be collected in the spring when they have already bulked up, but yet were not dismissed. Young branches with kidneys cut off, connect in bunches and dry in cool rooms (that they have not got out of hand). After drying of kidney thresh. It is necessary to store raw materials in densely corked tanks no more than 1 year.
Bark is prepared in the early spring during blooming of kidneys. At this time it easily separates from wood. Bark is removed from young trunks and branches separate tapes. It is inadmissible to do the closed circular cuts as it can lead to death of tree. Before drying it is necessary to remove the stuck parts of wood, to remove outgrowths of lichens from bark surface. 3–4 years store raw materials.
Leaves collect during their full blooming, most often in blossoming phase. Leaves of some trees and bushes can be collected during the whole year. At grassy plants it is not necessary to collect leaves prior to blossoming as they are poor in active agents. When drying the raw materials can be displayed in several layers. The dried-up leaves have to keep the coloring close to natural. Store raw materials no more than 1 year in the boxes which are laid out by paper in the dry room.
Flowers collect during their full blooming more often, but sometimes and in budding stage. At one plants collect flower baskets, at others – only nimbuses of flowers or inflorescence entirely. Dry flowers, having spread out thin layer in shadow on air or in the aired rooms. It is not recommended to mix raw materials as it strongly is rumpled and crumbles. It is possible to store the dried-up flowers in densely corked banks till 2 years.
The grass (leaf-bearing tops of plants) is prepared, as a rule, during blossoming. When drying the grass is displayed thin layer in shadow or suspended in bunches. Some plants after drying thresh, choosing and discarding odrevesnevshy stalks. No more than 2 years store raw materials.
Seeds and fruits collect in the period of their full maturity or a little immature (caraway seeds, dogrose). Seeds of grassy plants in most cases do not demand dosushivaniye. Juicy fruits (berries) before drying cannot be washed and to pour repeatedly from one ware into another. pgoda can be dried on the sun, but it is better in furnaces or dryers at temperature up to 60 °C. Well dried up seeds and fruits can be stored till 3 years.
Tubers, roots and rhizomes dig out late fall, more rare in the early spring. After extraction from the earth they are washed cold water, delete the elevated and spoiled parts. The raw materials of ginseng, mallow, glycyrrhiza and some other plants cannot be washed water – of the earth they are cleared hands or knife. For drying acceleration large roots and rhizomes cut on pieces and dry in dryers or furnaces.
For receiving full-fledged medicinal raw materials it is necessary to follow strictly rules of collecting, drying and storage of plants which are developed in the course of long practice.