How to watch condition of air in educational rooms
High performance of pupils remains long time if the educational and production activity proceeds under favorable microclimatic conditions and the light mode of rooms, the correct selection of furniture, beautiful internal finishing of interiors.
The special attention needs to be paid to condition of air in educational and production rooms.
The increased temperature and humidity, bacterial impurity, the increased content of organic substances, deterioration in ionic composition of air promote increase of exhaustion and decrease in efficiency of pupils.
The heatfeeling of the person depends on complex influence of all meteorological factors: temperatures, humidity and mobility of air.
|Relative humidity, %||30-50|
|Mobility, m/s||0,06-0,25||to 0,4||0,6-0,8||to 0,4||0,6-0,8|
|Relative humidity, %||25-60|
|Mobility, m/s||to 0,3||to 1,0|
In the moderate climatic area optimum air temperature during the cold period of year in educational rooms has to be within 18-20 °C, in production workshops (metalwork, turning, milling) - 16-17 °C, in recreations - 15-16 °C. Relative humidity of air in the main rooms (offices, laboratories, workshops) technical schools has to make 30-50%. Mobility of air should not exceed 1,0 m/s.
During school day the microclimate in rooms considerably changes. The players of air are changed (chemical, physical, bacterial), concentration of carbonic acid increases in air (the norm of CO2 for the enclosed space makes 0,07-0,1%) that leads to fast exhaustion and decrease in working capacity. It is aggravated with accumulation of organic substances which availability in air is caused by breath of the present people, and also depends on sanitary condition of skin, clothes of pupils and the room. Together with the dust rising at the movement of pupils the quantity of bacteria increases in air that is unsafe in the epidemiological relation. At adverse conditions of external environment the quantity of the negative ions in air which are favorably operating on organism decreases. Air temperature also undergoes considerable changes: in 3-4 hours of studies it raises quite often on 4 °, and by the end of day - on 5,5 °. Temperature increase and humidity of air reduces organism thermolysis that leads to thermal discomfort (pupils complain of headache, the general weakness, feeling of fatigue), promotes faster exhaustion. Therefore it is necessary to watch constantly the air mode of educational and production rooms, timely to air them in hours when they are free.
These hours need to be used for broad aeration which is carried out under control of the doctor and teachers. It is established that efficiency of the pupils who are engaged during school day in well aired room is 1,5-2 times higher, than at the pupils working in not aired room. Aeration of the main premises of technical schools has to be made as by means of natural, and artificial ventilation. The best device for natural airing, especially in cold season, are the transoms supplied with the lever locks allowing to include without effort system of airing. In warm season open windows. For the winter it is necessary to leave not covered one window for airing during big changes, and also before occupations: in the presence of central heating optimum air temperature in rooms is quickly recovered. In cold season during occupations it is necessary to open transoms in recreations and corridors, creating necessary reserve of fresh air, and for the period of changes they need to be closed. Duration of airing depends on temperature of outside air. So, in small changes (10 min.) at temperature of outside air from +10 to +5 °C duration of airing has to make 4-10 min.; respectively at temperature from +5 to 0 °C - 3-7 min.; from 0 to -5 °C - 2-5 min.; from-5 to -10 °C - 1-3 min.; it is below -10 °C - 1,0-1,5 min. Airing duration between changes at air temperature from +10 to +5 °C has to make 25-35 min.; respectively at temperature from +5 to 0 °C - 20-30 min.; from 0 to -5 °C - 15-25 min.; from-5 to -10 °C - 10-15 min.; it is below -10 °C - 5-10 min.
The big effect is reached at through airing, but it can be seen off only in the absence of pupils in rooms. It is possible to increase intensity of exchange of air by means of exhaust ventilation on natural motivation or at the expense of the mechanical activator. Mechanical exhaust ventilation has to be expected automatic inclusion both on changes, and during lesson (1-2 times for 5-10 min.). Systematic control of condition of ventilating channels and lattices and observance of the mode of airing of rooms is conducted by medical, pedagogical and economic personnel. Lattices of ventilating systems should be cleared systematically of dust and not to cover when whitewashing walls. At least two times a year cleaning of ventilating channels has to be carried out. In recent years the system of heating combined with ventilation, providing at the same time heating and ventilation of educational rooms during occupations is widely used.