Microorganisms - invisible allies of the person


Our acquaintance to flora and animals consigns to the remote past and is closely connected with thousand-year history of development of human society. But only a little more than three hundred flyings ago people have learned about existence of uncountable great number of the living beings who have adapted amazingly to the most improbable living conditions.

These beings who are not seen with the naked eye can live also in hot springs where water temperature approaches hundred degrees, both in permafrost layer, and at the bottom of the seas and oceans, and in stratosphere, and on fruitless soils of the great Sahara Desert, and in "black sand" of Kara Kum, and on naked, unapproachable rocks, and in the strongest poisons, and in subsoil of nuclear reactors.

Apparently, German Kirchner who has reported in 1659 about stay to them by means of magnifying glass of smallest "worms" in air, water, the soil, milk, cheese and in rotten plants was the first person who has seen microorganisms. However this opening remained unnoticed and now most of scientists considers as the pioneer of the world of microbes of the Dutch dealer in cloth, skillful shlifovalshchik of magnifying glasses of Antoni von Lewenguka who not only has made out them by means of primitive microscope, but also has made the detailed description and sketches.

Since before the person the new world of living beings accompanying people during all their life has opened the new era which has changed all understanding existing in science and led to tremendous opening has begun.

In process of improvement of optics scientists tried to understand structure of microorganisms and to classify unexpectedly open kingdom of live forms, tried to lay their representatives in already known systematic groups of plants and animals.

In these experiences there were many mistakes, but gradually wrong views have been rejected, and the new remarkable science - microbiology which founder is the great Frenchman Louis Pasteur was created.

Throughout centuries unsophisticated mind of the person assumed that "worms" (larva of flies) appear in the decaying meat from some dead material, and even such ingenious thinker as Aristotle, considered that caterpillars result from rotting of the earth or plants. Such views were dominating throughout many centuries and the most advanced people of different eras have been seriously convinced that mice will be born from dirty linen.

The first gap in the theory of self-generation was punched by the outstanding Italian naturalist Ladzaro Spallantsani who has managed to transplant in separate droplet of water of one microbe and proved that microorganisms as well as all live, will be born from similar.

Gradually with development of natural sciences of idea of emergence of microbes "from nothing" departed to the area of historical funny things, but the doctrine about spontaneous origin was very hardy and got different forms.