We choose physical activities for treatment of obesity
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In complex therapy and prevention of obesity the important role belongs to physical factors.
As it was specified in the previous articles, one of the directions of treatment of obesity is increase in power expenses of organism by purpose of various physical activities. Physical activities - medical physical culture, walking, run, swimming, ski race and pipits, different sports - have very significant effect on energy exchange size, considerably increase power expenditure, contribute to improvement and normalization of metabolism, strengthening of disintegration of fats in fatty tissue, improvement of functional ability of all bodies and systems, working capacity increase. They are shown at all forms and stages of obesity.
Choosing carrying out forms, volume and intensity of loadings, it is necessary to be guided by health and condition of patients. Certainly, before occupations it is necessary to consult to the doctor, the physiotherapy exercises instructor who depending on degree of obesity, conditions of the patient, functionality of organism, taking into account age, sex and physical fitness can recommend in individual order what types of physical activities and in what volume should be carried out to everyone.
When performing physical activities it is necessary to adhere to the following principles:
- divisibility of loading - physical activities needs to be distributed for all day
- dosage - gradualness of increase of volume and intensity of physical activities taking into account degree of obesity and size of speed of weight reduction, caloric content of daily food allowance, functional condition of bodies and systems, and also organism in general
- regularity - daily physical activities without breaks, despite of deficit of time and weather
- variety - at assimilation and final fixing of one complexes it is necessary to start development of other complexes of physical activities that first of all raises tone of the psychoemotional sphere of the patient, the monotony and monotony warns
- the collectivity of performance of physical exercises allows to avoid eases in performance of physical activities, promotes constructive mutually control, maintenance of emulative spirit
We consider it expedient to begin occupations in groups of health, the improving centers and different clubs of fans of run and healthy lifestyle under control of instructors on physiotherapy exercises after careful inspection and assessment of functionality of organism. The specialists of Institute of food having vast experience of treatment of patients with obesity recommend sets of exercises which are applied in 3 stages.
Introduction, or approximate, the period proceeds 3-10 days. During this period patients carry out all-physical exercises, paying special attention to respiratory, work the correct and rhythmical breath. The condition of cardiovascular system and physical fitness of the patient is estimated.
The second period which proceeds month, assumes development and performance of various and special exercises of gradually increasing complexity and loading with finishing to greatest possible for each sick level.
In the third final period in 3-5 days prior to the patient's extract from hospital the classes directed to adaptation to house conditions are given, recommendations about the motive mode and hardening are made. The set of exercises for corpulent people developed at Institute of food is included below.
Exercise 1. Standing the right side to back of chair and holding it hand, to take away the left leg back, and to raise the left hand up. Pendulum free movements by the left leg and hand. To repeat 12-16 times with big scope. Breath is any.
Exercise 2. Standing the right side to chair back, holding it the right hand, to take away back the right leg, and to set aside the left hand aside. At the same time the strong move forward the right leg and the left hand becomes. Try to touch toes. To repeat 8-10 times. Breath is any.
Exercise 3. To rise facing chair back on distance, it is a little less than length of leg. Through back or seat of chair serially to transfer direct right, then left leg at first to one, then to other party. To repeat 8-12 times each leg.
Exercise 4. To rise sideways to back of chair and, holding it the right hand, to make lateral inclination to chair. At the same time left (hand over the head) to try to touch chair back. To repeat 5-6 times to the right and to the left.
Exercise 5. To rise back to wall on distance 1-1,5 steps from it, legs at shoulder length. Turn to the right, without tearing off foot of legs from floor. To touch by hands and at the same time right shoulder walls. To repeat serially 4-5 times to the right and to the left.
Exercise 6. Hands in the parties, legs at shoulder length. Breath. The inclination forward to touch by the right hand sock of the left leg or floor about sock. Exhalation. To repeat serially 4-6 times to the right and to the left.
Exercise 7. Standing behind chair, the extended right leg to reach chair back. To make on exhalation of 3 springing inclinations to sock of the right leg. To become straight, make breath and to repeat the inclined movements to the left leg. To repeat serially 4-8 times in both parties.
Exercise 8. Walking with turn of trunk and hands towards attack. 15-20 wide steps with attacks are taken. When turning trunk towards step of hand to overflow in the same party.
Exercise 9. Inclinations sitting on floor to the right and to the left, to put legs more widely than shoulders, hands behind the head. At inclinations to try to touch by elbow of hand floor. To repeat 4-5 times from each party.
Exercise 10. It is carried out sitting on rug, the straightened legs are widely divorced. 3-4 springing inclinations at first to the right leg (hands slide along leg), then the same movements in the direction of the left leg. To repeat 4-5 times.
Exercise 11. It is carried out lying on spin. Legs the straight lines extended hands along body. Breath by "stomach" (on breath the stomach is raised, on exhalation - it is lowered, involved). To repeat 8-10 times. Then do "belly dance": the tolchkoobrazny protrusion of stomach which is replaced its sharp retraction. To repeat 30 times with small breaks for rest.
Exercise 12. Hands are divorced in the parties, palms up. One leg is raised and straightened. To step one leg through another, making the sharp movement by the body at first in one, then in other party. To repeat 4-5 times.
Exercise 13. Legs at shoulder length, hands in the parties, palms up. Turn to the left, without separation of heels from floor to reach the right hand to left, cotton palms. Exhalation. The similar movements to the left side. To repeat 4-5 times.
Exercise 14. Lying on spin, legs are extended, hands behind the head. To raise both legs in the direct extended situation up and on exhalation slowly to lower them. More difficult option: the direct raised legs to write off" in air of figure from 1 to 10, later - words.
Exercise 15. From prone position on spin, without tearing off heels from floor and without helping itself hands, to pass into sitting position. To repeat several times.
Exercise 16. Sitting on floor, to place legs on width of shoulders, emphasis hands behind. Leaning on heels of legs and the left hand, to raise basin, to raise the right hand up, to turn to the left and to cave in. The similar movements to the right side. To repeat 4-8 times.
Exercise 17. Sitting on floor or on the edge of chair, to raise direct legs, imitating them the movements by crawl style (serially down-up), hands are divorced in the parties.
Exercise 18. Lying on spin, to lean in floor hands at the level of breast, to straighten hands, to bend trunk, to cast away the head back, without tearing off hips and legs from floor. To repeat 6-8 times.
Exercise 19. Lying on stomach, to rest hands against floor at the level of breast. To raise basin up, leaning on straight arms and socks, shoulders to bring closer to knees. Exhalation.
Exercise 20. To rise on all fours, to incline basin to the left and to sit down, without tearing off hands and knees from floor. Exhalation. The same to the right side. To repeat in both parties on 4-8 times.
Along with physiotherapy exercises independent occupations are recommended by different types of physical activities. Power consumption size on these loadings depends on intensity of their performance. We give approximate power consumption on different types of activity counting on the "standard" person weighing 60 kg.
|Activity type||Power consumption
|Rest lying without dream||65|
|Drawing up letter||100|
|Work in laboratory sitting||110|
|Work in laboratory standing||160-170|
|Homework like washing of ware, ironing, cleaning||120-240|
|Run by "trot"||360|
|Walking on skis|
|Driving the bicycle||210-600|
Here it is necessary to mention that the person spends energy mainly for the main exchange, digestion of food, muscular activity.
As earlier it was specified, the size of the main exchange averages 1500-1800 kcal. Food expenses on specific dynamic action average 10-15% of the main exchange - 150-270 kcal. If to consider, for example, that at the men doing manual work which does not demand considerable power expenditure (workers of services industry) average daily power exchange it is equal to 2750-3000 kcal, and women of the same professional group have 2350-2550 kcal, then it is easy to count that these people spend for muscular activity only up to 1000 and 800 kcal respectively.
Not to put on weight, the person has to spend energy so much how many he receives it with food, and at already available excess weight of body for its reduction it is necessary to spend energy more, than it consumes it. It is known that the main exchange of the person - size more or less constant. The second component of power exchange - specific dynamic action of food - too relatively constant. It means that the only component of power exchange of the person which can be regulated, raised or lowered is power consumption on muscular activity. Increasing the volume and intensity of muscular activity, it is possible to exceed power consumption over its arrival. That is why it is important to know power consumption of separate types of activity.
It must be kept in mind that at children and elderly people energy expenditure is lowered - at the first in connection with smaller body weight, at the second - because of decrease in intensity of metabolism and physical activity. Calculations show that daily excess of consumption of energy over energy expenditure only on 300 kcal (it is, for example, one hundred-gram rich roll) promotes accumulation in organism of 15-30 g of fat that in year can make 5,5-10 kg.
For determination of level of physical activities it is necessary to know daily need of the person for energy which is established on the basis of data on age, sex, nature of the performed work, way of life, the actual and appropriate body weight.