Cookery in Renaissance
Renaissance was marked not only the highest take-off. It has given also powerful spur to blossoming of culinary art. Still not to clear up to cooks: they already knew many spices, seasonings, products, new to Europe (potatoes, tomatoes, maize - corn), overseas fruit, that is all that was brought by Great geographical discoveries. Feasts and the reception held by kings and the nobility became more magnificent and richer. Again cooks exercised the wit in preparation of intricate dishes, having left far behind ancient cooks.
Romans could hardly imagine such magnificence and wealth. The tone was set by the French yard. So, the known French gourmet suited in Paris in 1745 several lunches at which there was king of France Louis XV. 250 dishes - from meat, fish, game, refined fruit, and also east sweets, ice cream, not to mention drinks moved. Even the usual dinner of the king during that time consisted of hundreds of names of dishes.
Also equipment of table was improved. In the 16th century plates, however, only in rich families have entered the use.
The first napkins have appeared in France on the occasion of crowning of the king Charles VII (1429). They have been brought to it by residents of Reims, and at the Spanish king Charles V (1516-1585) they became daily during rich lunches.
The first forks have been made in France at Henry III (1574-1589). To same in the most aristocratic families ate with hands, sometimes resorting to the help of knife. Long since knives brought for lunch. In fact it were daggers, and they were used if on feast quarrel broke out. Only at the time of Napoléon I in France table knives with the rounded-off end which have kept the form still have been entered into use.
In Europe the first restaurants (Paris) have appeared. The first coffee houses have opened in Constantinople in 1554 and they were called "schools of wisdom". In the 17th century in Germany, the Czech Republic, France coffee houses have been open.
Tea has appeared in England in 1610. Not to buy tea in China, British began to part it in the Indian colonies.
Chocolate became known in Europe thanks to Spaniards who have taken out it from America. In France Louis XIV's wife - Maria Theresa for the first time began to drink chocolate. Women of quality to whom they gave to bed of cup of coffee or chocolate have followed its example.
Tea, coffee, chocolate have allowed cooks of the 16-17th centuries to create hundreds of new drinks, desserts and other delicacies.
Europeans have got acquainted with seasonings and spices as a result of Great geographical discoveries too. Ginger, carnation, nutmeg, pepper fragrant, white, black and other spices were fabulously expensive and available to only very rich people. Became prestigious to prepare culinary products with addition of large amount of spices.
So, history has repeated, but, so to speak, on other culinary round. Refined lunches at royal houses have eclipsed ancient feasts. But, as well as in the ancient time, on such receptions business acquaintances were started, the "necessary" connection was established, difficult intrigues quite often trudged. Kings had opportunity to show to foreigners both the wealth, and the generosity, making impression about power of the power.
And again, as well as in antique times, the voices calling for refusal of excesses are distributed. In Italy there was even school of health which has issued "The code of health" where the special attention is paid to balanced diet.
The French, German, Dutch culinary recipes begin to get into Russian cuisine in the 17-18th centuries. Naturally, it has mentioned only kitchen of ruling classes. Especially noticeable the side between simple national kitchen and refined domonical became at Peter I. Recipe-books of that time dazzle with foreign names. To rich houses it was fashionable to invite foreign cooks to whom paid huge salary. Owners of such houses competed among themselves, trying to strike guests with luxury and exoticism of table. If the prince Kuragin organized ball where gave hundreds of overseas viands, and serf cooks built intricate sugar, spices, oil castles, then the prince Potemkin Tavrichesky rolled up such lunch that the poor prince Kuragin was posramlyon. Such "competitions", as well as in the ancient time, cost fabulous means, mass of expensive products. And all this occurred when the people felt need sometimes for the most necessary when lean years doomed thousands of poor people to starvation.
Development of culinary art, especially in the cities, has generated also special literature. It is possible to find the most improbable recipes and councils for preparation of surprising dishes in it. But also as far as authors of such recipes are far from understanding of life of people at large is not less surprising and their councils for overwhelming part of the population of the country are how incompatible.
Here several names of dishes from the recipe-book E. Molokhovets "Gift to young hostesses, or means to reduction of expenses in household", left in 1863 in St. Petersburg, and then repeatedly republished. At once we will notice: its name obviously does not correspond to truth. About any economy out of the question as generally recipes are expected expensive products and their long preparation: soup in an Orleans way, tartare sauce, cutlets mareshal, chickens with parmesan, paste Strasbourg, pudding Dutch bef a la fashions (meat dish), potatoes payl, porridge Guryev, cakes English, ice cream Chateaubriand and hundreds of others.
There is practically no national country food: tyur, zatirukh, soups. And matter not only in difference of city tenor of life from rural (the difference was found both in clothes, and in the organization of life, and in food, and in the housing device), but also in haughty habit to look down on all demotic.
But, maybe, recipes E. Molokhovets are convenient for the hostess? We open the book: "If to you guests have come, and you have no dinner, go down in cellar, take yesterday's roast veal, smoked tongue, ham and quickly make solyanka". Isn't that so, how simply?!
E. Molokhovets is not specialist in the field of culinary art, but to collect recipes there was its hobby. Assume that it as the translator from French collected generally French recipes as at that time France acted as the fashion-maker in food. The husband in day of its birth has given the wife gift - has published the collection of recipes. There was so this very remarkable book.
The reader can object, of course: what, actually, to ask with E. Molokhovets - she is after all laywoman. Well, we will address the professional book "Practical Bases of Culinary Art for Culinary Schools and for Self-training". The author is Ignatyeva-Alexandrova, the teacher of cook art at culinary school of St. Petersburg. So, before us - the expert, where as not at it to look for the recommendations corresponding to scientific achievements of that time. After all 20th century! The hygiene of food, physiology, biochemistry and other sciences studying live organism have already told the word. In Germany - M. Rubner, Noorden's school known for the whole world. In Russia - school of I. Pavlov and other prominent scientists. Yes, it is already proved that the organism needs various foodstuff. The science about vitamins was born. Power supply systems depending on organism energy expenditure are developed. There were already serious researches which are convincingly proving danger of obesity. And what culinary specialists? Ignatyeva-Alexandrova offers: bef estufatto, beefsteak in Hamburg, pancakes imperial, biscuit zhenuaz, potatoes payl, shampipyona and - la-pullet, ice cream Chateaubriand, etc. Recipes several thousands, many of them are expected long preparation and include the mass of expensive products and spices. Who could take similar advice? Of course, not the simple worker lyud. It is curious that the author provides the special list of dishes for servants (for example, dumplings from potatoes) and specifies that, for example, the frozen meat (unlike pair) needs to be given to servants and collective workers.
It is obvious that the book is addressed to those who, in any case, is not busy with hard physical work. Having data on organism energy expenditure, it is easy to make food allowance. Let's try to make it, proceeding from the listed recipes. In the book it is said that calculations are made on 5 having dinner persons. It means that 1,5 kilograms of meat without bone, 1 kilogram of fish, 0,8 kilograms of butter, 10 eggs, and still grain, flour, spices, korenye, vegetables, etc. are allocated for one lunch. To make such lunch, the cook and the servants need not less than 6-7 hours.
Many centuries of the cook went about the own business, without knowing about any science, and were guided first of all by the taste. And work them was highly appreciated. Ancient Rome paid them huge salary. So, Mark Anthony, Octavian Augustus's rival, has presented to the cook the town for tasty made lunch, and the emperor Claudius, during meeting of the senate in Rome has stopped the speaker and long spoke about the tasty pies made for it for lunch. In even more remote times when the governor, umertvlyal of the cook and the cupbearer that and in next world they serviced the master died.
The supporters of moderation urging to refuse excesses and to give preference to simple, more rough, but also healthier food opposed with charges not only gluttons more than once, but also those who encouraged them and humoured, that is against cooks. The philosopher of the 1st century of our era Seneca considered that Romans who complain of illness first of all have to banish good cooks.
Whether there were among cooks long-livers? It is definitely possible to tell - no. The cook is in stuffy, zadymlyonny kitchen smog the room and is obliged to try all that it does, especially in solemn occasions when he is responsible for preparation of viands for distinguished guests. The paradox turns out - the cook himself does not live and shortens life another. It is a lot of crowned lords and grandees was slowly, but with taste it is ruined by inventively cooked food.
In the 17th century to the yard of the English king the 152-year-old peasant Foma Parra has been invited. It was shown court as rare exhibit. Alas, through short time the poor peasant has died of gluttony and inaction. It was opened by the famous court doctor, the founder of science about blood circulation U. Garvey, and has not found in vessels of the long-liver any age changes. At himself on simple country food he could probably live in rural areas longer.
Among representatives of exclusive classes were, however, and such who, using services of culinary specialists, understood danger of similar food. So, the notable Venetian living in the 14-15th centuries Ludovico Cornaro by forty years has been sentenced by doctors to death. Forced to refuse favourite viands and drinks, he began to eat modestly, having passed to simple food, has lived 99 years and until the end of days remained the preacher of moderate way of life. For edification of descendants he wrote: "Though all agree that immoderation is the child of gluttony, nevertheless on it look as at valor and sign of eminence". He urged to moderate the passions, to be able to be self-controlled: "Passions in most cases have no big power over body, the subordinate to two rules: to abstention and moderation in drink and food, also cannot do it big harm".
In France which has given to the world of many outstanding cooks and new ways of processing of foodstuff (frying in hot fan, browning), the culture of culinary art in the 17-18th centuries has reached high level. Known French gourmet Brilya-Savaren (1755-1826), author of the well-known aphorism: "Opening of new dish is more important than opening of new star for mankind", - has published the book "Taste Physiology" where gave valuable advice on balanced diet, claimed, in particular, that the destiny of the nation depends on how the people eat.
In Russia in 1885 D. V. Kanshin has published the book "Encyclopedia of Food" where already scientific approach to food problem is found. His life is instructive. Being student of Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum in St. Petersburg, he has got sick with gout from the excessive use of meat food (according to him, at that time, that is in the 50th years of the 19th century, it was fashionable to eat daily about one kilogram of fried roast beefs). Studying the literature devoted to prevention and treatment of such diseases he has found out that it is possible to get rid of gout if it is correct to organize the food mode. D. Kanshin, studying kitchen of the different people, has visited many countries of the world and has come to conclusion that national food - original elixir of health. His many statements were very acute: "To write out medicine, the doctor is given the diploma. We take medicine in microscopic doses. Why we worship ignorance of the cook who daily prescribes us recipes of breakfasts, lunches, that is the same medicine, but already in a quantitative sense in hundreds times more, than the doctor recommends. The illiterate cook has subordinated herself the famous scientists as she cooks to them food not on science, and on intuition and taste".
D. Kanshin dreamed of Academy of food where food problems at the scientific level would be studied. Hundred years ago it has opened in St. Petersburg and Moscow "normal" dining rooms in which the norms of food developed by scientists have been expected persons with different physical activities. Dining rooms have received positive assessment of specialists. Alas, after death of the enthusiast who has created them they have gradually stopped existence. But were widely adopted so-called kukhmistersky where the food was cooked, without penetrating into what happens to products, and without thinking about any principles of food.
That it became clear, recipes of recipe-books of that time and as long preparation they demanded are how difficult, we suggest readers to prepare several dishes. So, we open "The latest and full cookbook" (1790), "New candy store and the cookbook" (1817), compositions: "The experienced cook, house-keeper, confectioner" (1829), "Kukhmister 19th century" (1854). Let's in passing remind the system of measures accepted in Russia 100-200 flyings ago:
- 1 pound - 430 g;
- 1 bottle - 600 g;
- 1 cup - 120 g;
- 1 ounce - 25 g;
- 1 lot - 12,8 g;
- 1 zolotnik - 4 g;
- 1 share - 0,04 g.