From where fat men undertake
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One of the most actual tasks in prevention of many diseases and improvement of life - food streamlining.
Bread our essential makes not so unambiguous impact on human body.
About a third of the population of the earth suffers from malnutrition. At the same time in the countries with high standard of living the systematic overeating causes serious concern of physicians.
Researches have defined almost straight line and complete dependence between the excess weight and early mortality!!!!
So, at the age of 50-55 at men whose weight exceeded norm for 20 percent mortality was 20 percent higher than average. And the indicator of mortality increased in cases when weight was more normal for 35 percent, for 40 percent and above. The stout man seldom lives even up to 70-year age. Probably, there is sense to make efforts for normalization of the weight.
Excess weight first of all harmful affects activity of cardiovascular system. The fat which has collected in abdominal cavity leads to high standing of diaphragm and hinders the respiratory movements. Heart is as if shrouded in fatty armor which interferes with reductions of cardiac muscle. Already at young age nearly a half of the people having even rather small excess weight has short wind - the grown fat heart does not cope with loading. With age this process progresses even if weight significantly does not increase (and it, as a rule, accrues). It also leads to early mortality.
According to inspections, from different degrees of obesity (from 15 to 30 percent are higher than norm - the first degree, from 30 to the 50-second, from 50 to the 100-third, higher than 100 percent - the fourth) in the USA more than 35 percent of the population, in Germany-about 30 percent, in Bulgaria-22 of percent suffer. Our obesity is recorded at 22 percent of country people and at 28 percent of citizens.
What physiological mechanism of obesity
Violation of functions of the food centers located in brain is the most common cause of obesity. These centers two - the center of hunger and the center of satiety.
In experiments with rats it is established that at destruction of the center of hunger animals cease to feel need for food, refuse food and perish. At destruction of the center of satiety animals begin to eat excessively much, catastrophically quickly grow fat, and they are waited too by early death. Healthy the organism remains only at normal balance of functions of both centers.
The organism avoids work on limit. To provide uninterrupted operation of exchange processes, part of nutrients he lays in store - accumulates them in cages and fabrics, forming so-called depots. In these depots fats, and also carbohydrates collect. Their quantity kept in the deposited state also defines changes of body weight.
If receipt of calories with food corresponds to energy expenditure, weight is supported at the constant level. When arrival exceeds power consumption, excessive stocks in depot are created, weight grows. The healthy organism automatically regulates balance of arrival and expense by means of change of level of nutrients in blood.
In process of adjournment of stocks in depot blood becomes "hungry", it right there informs on it the center of hunger, exciting it. At stout persons intensity of filling of depot is higher normal, and blood gains "hungry" properties from them before there comes true hunger.
Group thin and the group of corpulent people was asked to come to laboratory on an empty stomach. Part of participants of experiment have fed with sandwiches, and then have suggested to eat with everything cookies.
Thin which have not got some sandwiches have eaten cookies much more, than those who have managed to eat.
Corpulent irrespective of, they have got sandwiches or not, have eaten cookies equally much.
stout persons, as a rule, do not know when they are hungry and when are full, they are ready to eat always as soon as opportunity for this purpose is represented
Most often stout persons react in an improper way also to other signals of organism sent with the purpose to suppress aspiration to food. One of similar signals is caused by sensation of fear.
In experiment it is proved that at emergence of such powerful irritant as the fear, at animals, and also at people with normal functioning of the centers of hunger and satiety immediately casts blood from stomach to muscles. Gastric reductions stop, appetite vanishes.
And here full in stressful state can eat even more, than usually. The food for them is not needs of nature of healthy organism, but pleasure from the process of chewing and absorption of food, some kind of compensation at emotional frustration and lack of peace of mind.
The price of such "compensation" is rather high: the person predisposed to completeness accepting daily calories only is 5 percent more than norm, in two months can add one kilogram of weight.
|Corpulent people not only eat more thin, but also move less them.
Distances which are overcome during the day by people of one age and one profession are counted.
At thin distances in day almost twice exceed daily distances of corpulent people
Consider that if the father and mother are inclined to completeness, then and the child most often will be same. However such genetic predisposition has no fatal character at all and quite gives in to regulation. It is established that it is shown only when it is provoked by systematic overeating. For this reason the parents inclined to completeness have to protect since the very first months the children from overeating.
Fighting against excess weight, it is necessary to remember that the success will be especially strong, than for longer term will drag out weight loss process. Unfortunately, too often it happens so that, having taken drastic measures and having quickly lost weight, the person returns the kilograms soon enough, having returned to former diet and the movements. Only strong psychological setup on continuous moderate restrictions in food and increase in physical activity guarantee reliable weight reduction.
In the childhood and youth if the person develops normally, that is moves quite a lot: runs, plays, floats, dances, it can even remain thin at plentiful food. Large amount of energy at it is spent not only in the course of physical activity, but also for biological forming of organism: growth of bones, muscular tissue, organization of all its systems, especially endocrine. Therefore the weight of such child quite often lags behind accepted standards, however it should not disturb parents at all.
The care will be reasonable when it is limited to the organization of sports occupations of the child at the food volume answering to his appetite.
However the stout, constantly chewing parents in every possible way aim to make such and the children. Quite often, in passing breaking violence and mentality of the child, these unreasonable efforts are crowned with success.
As a result in recent years children's and juvenile obesity is even more often fixed: welfare of people, unfortunately, advances growth of their cultural level.
Parents should be released from the become obsolete views and to take into consideration unanimous opinion of all pediatricians:
the overfed child is potentially sick adult, children's completeness - not health, but illness
At patients with obesity of fatty cages is three times more, than at people of normal weight, and fat contain these cages one and a half times bigger. Any tricks these cages cannot be expelled from organism; time having appeared, they remain in it for the rest of life.
All ways of weight loss finally are reduced only to reduction of amount of fat in these cages. That is why it is so important to avoid at early age emergence of excessive weight.
Usually by 22-30 years the metabolism is at maximum level.
Normal life activity requires a lot of high-quality, caloric food. Later, when biological forming of organism comes to the end, because of decrease in physical activity of muscle acquire less glucose, its surpluses turn into fat. And there is age increase in weight.
During this period it is necessary to review the food allowance resolutely. It is hard to make it as plentiful food becomes usual, taste to various delicacies develops, there are many temptations.