Types of breath and breathing exercises
Distinguish two types of breath: chest at which in the act of breath intercostal muscles participate in the basic, and belly - with participation of diaphragm and muscles of belly process. Babies and most of men, chest type - women have belly type of breath. The type of breath changes depending on pose and the performed work. During the sedentary work chest breath joins, during dream favorable conditions for phrenic breath are created. For mastering technology of full breath it is necessary to define type of the breath in the beginning.
The easiest to master belly (phrenic) breath lying on spin, having enclosed palms under the head and having a little bent knees. Then reductions of intercostal muscles are at a loss position of hands, and reductions of diaphragm are facilitated as muscles of stomach are relaxed. The respiratory cycle should be begun with active exhalation (with participation of diaphragm and muscles of stomach). At such exhalation the stomach is pulled in. After exhalation the pause to requirement of breath becomes. Then it is necessary to make breath diaphragm, as if to fill stomach with air. After small pause to exhale, strongly pulling in stomach.
Chest breath should be mastered lying on stomach. In this pose of the movement of diaphragm are at a loss, and intercostal muscles show big activity. At breath the thorax rises, at exhalation - falls. It is necessary to do this exercise on 3-4 times till breakfast and dinner, lying on rigid couch or on rug on floor.
After fixing of skills of phrenic and chest breath it is possible to pass to development of full breath. It becomes as follows. After usual exhalation the small pause is maintained, the requirement of breath will not appear yet. Then the slow breath through the nose which is followed by mental arithmetic to eight is taken. On breath belly and chest breath integrate, i.e. at first the breath "in stomach" which at the same time is slightly stuck out is taken, then the thorax extends, and, at last, shoulders (at the end of breath the wall of stomach is already slightly involved) rise. The exhalation is made in the same sequence - at first the diaphragm relaxes, stomach muscles are reduced, intercostal muscles relax then and shoulders fall. Between exhalation and the following breath the small pause becomes again (there will be yet no desire to inhale).
The doctor K. Dineyka recommends other sequence of exhalation at full breath, namely: to exhale not "from below up", and "from top to down" - at first to lower thorax, then to pull in stomach. It is possible to use both types of exhalation. But anyway the exhalation has to be active, i.e. at the same time the abdominal tension has to be reduced and be pulled in stomach.
At such breath ventilation of lungs improves, the bigger quantity of alveoluses functions. Continuous training of full breath gradually increases the vital capacity of lungs, strengthens respiratory muscles, improves mobility of diaphragm, improving blood supply, increases the resilience of bronchial tubes and nasopharynx to adverse effects. The active movements of diaphragm mass abdominal organs (first of all liver), recovering their blood circulation. Full breath improves and facilitates action of the heart.
Breath it is necessary to train several times a day: the first time on an empty stomach, and then after 3 and more hours after food. Classes are given in the fresh air: in the summer - on balcony, in garden or at open windows, in the winter - after airing of the room. It is not necessary to be fond at once of intensive breathing exercises as unusual ventilation of lungs without the corresponding training can lead to excess loss of carbonic acid and thereof - to dizziness and even faint. Therefore it is necessary to maintain pause after each exit and to increase duration of occupations gradually, taking at first no more than 2-3 full breaths and exhalations (only in 3-4 weeks it is possible to reach till 10-15 respiratory cycles during one occupation).
In the beginning performance of such breathing exercises requires constant attention. Afterwards as a result of their repeated repetition the mechanism of the correct breath becomes usual and is carried out without strong-willed efforts. It means that automatism of breath was developed.
For fixing of skills of full breath additional exercises are recommended.
To put legs on width of shoulders, to make full exhalation, then - slow breath through nose, as at full breath. Without taking pause at breath height, to make exhalation through the lips put as for whistle (without inflating cheeks). To exhale air short strong pushes for what during each air push it is necessary to strain (to pull in stomach) and to relax belly muscles and diaphragm. If air pushes at exhalation are weak, exercise loses meaning. One breath breaks into three pushes.
This exercise is useful after long stay in the closed stuffy room for fast ventilation of lungs.
Sitting on chair, to make deep breath and to exhale slowly through nose, noting exhalation duration in seconds. In the course of training the exhalation is gradually extended (approximately on 2-3 with in every week of occupations), and it is necessary to finish exhalation without special strong-willed efforts.
Sitting or it being necessary to make discontinuous breath through nose in 3-4 receptions, i.e. after each breath to do small exhalation, and each subsequent breath has to be deeper than previous. When lungs are filled with air, after short delay of breath to make fast and strong exhalation through widely opened mouth. To repeat 3 times.
To rise directly, without tension. To make discontinuous breath in 3-4 receptions, accompanying everyone breath with protrusion of stomach (the diaphragm falls down at this time). The exhalation becomes through nose pushes. At each push the stomach is a little pulled in.
To rise directly, freely, without tension. To make full breath through nose. To make small pause (3-5 c), to exhale through mouth with sound "with". Then again to make full breath through nose and after pause has exhaled breakthroughs with sound "faugh-faugh-faugh". Along with each sound "faugh" it is necessary to involve and relax stomach. Not to raise shoulders. To repeat 3 times.
Training of breath with gradual lengthening of breath (breath is made under the mental account). The pause after breath is equal to half of breath. Eight respiratory cycles are carried out with gradual lengthening of breath (into account from 4 to 8) and short exhalation.
Breath with long breath and short active exhalation has the mobilizing effect therefore it should be done right after night dream to bring itself to vigorous state.
Begins with gradual lengthening of exhalation (into account from 4 to 8), the pause after exhalation, equal to half of exhalation becomes.
Breathing exercises with lengthening of exhalation and with pause before breath possess the calming action and promote fast backfilling. In order that it is correct to do the last two breathing exercises, it is possible without hurrying to do mental arithmetic to 4, 5, etc. It is important to keep ratio of duration of breath, exhalation and pause at the activating and calming breath.
After development of full breath and strengthening of intercostal muscles, muscles of abdominal tension and diaphragm breath when walking is useful to begin to train.
During walk in the fresh air it is necessary to go quiet step. Taking full breath, to slightly raise the head, at exhalation to lower a little. Breath rhythm any, but it is impossible to forget about full breath and active exhalation.
When full breath during quiet walking becomes usual, it is necessary to quicken gradually the pace, keeping full breath (but to avoid emergence of asthma). At the same time the breath will involuntarily go deep and the exhalation will amplify. Performance of this exercise strengthens heart muscle, improves its blood supply, normalizes blood pressure.
Breath during walk can be varied depending on time of day. In morning and day walks it is necessary to apply the activating type of full breath: to take the extended breath (on 4-6 steps) with pause after breath (on 2 steps) and shortened, but active exhalation (on 2 steps).
If walk becomes in the evening before going to bed, then the type of full breath has to be calming: short full breath (2 steps), then the extended active exhalation (4 steps) and pause after exhalation (2 steps).
At rise or uphill it is necessary to pay attention to exhalation depth to ladder. In this case the exhalation has to be forced with the participation of abdominal tension that not only improves ventilation of lungs, but also facilitates work of heart.
Carrying out the movements demanding physical effort (lifting of weights) it is necessary to combine them with exhalation. The exhalation at effort has to be active - with participation of abdominal tension.
Other dynamic breathing exercises are carried out to time of morning and production exercises. Breath is combined with the movements facilitating breath and exhalation. It is necessary to combine breath with the movements so that the breath was made at the position of extremities and trunks promoting expansion of thorax (for example, bending back, raising hand up), and has exhaled - in the situation facilitating air outlet (bending forward, lowering hands).
Starting position: legs at shoulder length, hands on belt. At breath slightly to lean back back, at exhalation to bend a little forward, having cramped shoulders and having lowered hands down. To repeat 5 times.
Starting position: legs at shoulder length, hands on hips. To make breath and to step at the same time the left leg forward, to cast away the head a little back, the right leg on sock. At exhalation to put leg into place, to hang the head a little. To repeat the same from the right leg. To do this exercise of 5 times.
Starting position: legs at shoulder length, hands are lowered along trunk. To make deep breath, at the same time to raise hands over the head and to lean back slightly back. On exhalation to bend forward, trying to touch by fingers of hands floor, without bending knees. To repeat 3 times.
Starting position: standing, legs together, hands on belt. Taking breath, to turn to the left, legs remain on site, helpless gesture is made in the parties at the level of shoulders. On exhalation to bend forward and to the left, to take away hands back. At the following breath to become straight and turn trunk to the right, having parted hands in the parties (at the level of shoulders). Doing exhalation, to bend forward and to the right, to take away hands back. On the next breath to become straight, to raise hands up and to make quiet exhalation with simultaneous lowering of hands. To repeat 2 times.
Starting position: standing, legs at shoulder length, hands are lowered along body. To make small breath, slowly exhaling, to hang the head on breast, to cramp shoulders forward, to touch by hands knees, to look down. On exhalation to raise the head, to straighten shoulders, to raise hands in the parties to shoulder height, to look up, to lower hands. To repeat 3 times.
Starting position: legs at shoulder length to place hands on breast so that they felt the movements of edges. To do roundabouts elbows forward, up, back, then in the opposite direction. To breathe evenly, without delays. To repeat 5 times.
Starting position: legs at shoulder length, hands on belt. To put palms on back, thumbs - forward. To incline trunk forward and back, to the right and to the left, when straightening slightly to squeeze back hands; during inclination to do exhalation, when straightening - breath. To repeat 3 times.
Same starting position. To do roundabouts middle part of trunk and hips. Breath is any, without delays. To repeat 10 times to the right and 10 times to the left.
Starting position: to walk all on chair, facing back, back direct, hands lean on chair back. To make breath, on exhalation to be bent, touch by face of hands and to strongly pull in stomach. To repeat 6 times.
Starting position: standing, legs together, to stuff up hands with the clenched fists for back (fists have to touch each other). To go slowly, at breath going into socks, trying to raise hands behind the back, to throw back the head back. At exhalation of leg to put on foot, to lower hands, to touch by chin breasts. To do exercise within 1 min.
Starting position: standing, legs together, hands are lowered along body. During breath to cave in back, to take step to the left (the right leg remains on site), to raise hands in the parties to shoulder height and to describe them small circles from left to right and from right to left on 4-6 times. On exhalation to rise in starting position. To repeat exercise, taking step the right leg.
Starting position: costing, legs together, hands on nape, fingers are bound. At breath to rise on toes and to cave in back, on exhalation to rise on foot, to part hands in the parties and to lower down. To repeat 6 times.
All these exercises strengthen muscles of thorax of stomach and diaphragm, promote development and fixing of skills of the correct (full) breath.
In the beginning it is necessary to do 3-5-7 exercises, gradually in process of training increasing their number. And, as it was already told, it is very useful to combine these exercises with daily walks in the fresh air at all seasons of the year. Rate of exercise and walking has to correspond to age and physical training.
Healthy people can independently control correctness, usefulness of exercises and walking. For this purpose it is necessary to count number of beating of the pulse in minute at rest before occupations (or walks), then right after exercises and 5 min. later after rest. Pulse can be considered on hand in you will bark luchezapyastny joint on side of thumb or on temple ahead of ear. If pulse after physical activity rhythmical is also accelerated no more than on 20 beats per minute in comparison with the frequency of serdtsebiyeniye at rest and if in 5 min. the number of blows comes to initial frequency, this physical activity means it is not excessive, useful. Soon pulse rate after exercises or walk (measured in 5 min.) can become more rare in comparison with initial. It means that it is possible to increase the number of exercises and to extend walk time, and then to accelerate walking.
To the elderly persons and people of middle age who do not have physical training, it is necessary to begin pedestrian walks at slow speed, taking no more than 80 steps a minute. After 10 minutes it is possible to pass gradually to average rate of walking (up to 100 steps a minute), but in 5 min. it is necessary to return to initial speed again. All walk has to continue no more than 20 min. in the beginning.
Passing to accelerated walking, for improvement of ventilation of lungs it is necessary to shorten a little stride and to make three exhalations through mouth, saying "faugh-faugh-faugh", sharply involving every time and relaxing stomach, then 5 min. to go in accelerated, at the same time a little learning and deepening breath. Not to forget to accelerate and strengthen exhalation! The next 5 minutes it is necessary to go quieter step. After walk it is necessary to have a rest and within 2-3 min. to continue to breathe deeply.
Persons with cardiovascular diseases and chronic pulmonary insufficiency can begin walks and exercises only to destination and under control of the doctor.