Drawing up the daily and week menu
By drawing up the menu it is necessary to consider set of factors, namely: the general content of necessary feedstuffs in diet, availability of necessary products in shops or in the market, the cost of products, seasonality, kind of work and even climatic features of the district in which we live.
To consider all these factors, in sanatoria and rest houses there is the whole staff of calculators.
First of all it is necessary to estimate the existing food. At first on balance of caloric content of food and the spent energy (it is necessary to check the first rule of balanced diet). For this purpose it is necessary to know the actual body weight and to compare it to norm (with ideal weight).
The further chain of reasoning will depend on whether the mass of your body differs from norm and if differs, then in what party. Let's consider all three possible options.
If the actual weight, bodies is close to norm. In our country of such people at working-age about 40%. Normal weight demonstrates that the diet which has developed still at you concerning fats and carbohydrates is optimum. But it is necessary to check whether consumption of proteins, vitamins and mineral substances is enough.
If the actual body weight is lower than norm. We in the country have some people with the lowered body weight at working-age - no more than 10%. The lowered weight says that the existing diet is insufficient concerning fats, carbohydrates, and also proteins. Most often insufficiency of fats and carbohydrates is followed as well by insufficiency of proteins in diet. Therefore doctors in these cases speak about "proteinaceous and caloric" insufficiency. As for vitamins and mineral elements, even if the organism is provided with their sufficient quantity, in the conditions of proteinaceous and caloric insufficiency violations in exchange of vitamins and mineral substances can be observed. To normalize their exchange, and also the general metabolism in organism, it is necessary to increase first of all consumption of the main feedstuffs - proteins, fats and carbohydrates to necessary level, and only in these conditions it is possible to normalize vitamin and mineral exchange successfully. Practically it means what should simply be eaten more. And if it does not help, then it is necessary to see doctor as it is possible to assume that reduced weight is result of serious disease urgently.
If the actual body weight exceeds norm. Unfortunately, percent of the people having excess weight, in our country as, however, and in the majority of the developed states, constantly increases. About a half of able-bodied population has excess weight. If excess weight exceeds normal for 15% or more, the serious illness - obesity is available, and it is necessary to see doctor who will take necessary measures immediately. The increased weight demonstrates first of all that in food there is excess of fats and carbohydrates or physical activity is significantly reduced. Therefore it is necessary to reduce the caloric content of diet or to increase physical activity (to do exercises with loading, to be engaged in easy jogging, easy sports), and it is better both at the same time. However reduction of caloric content of diet at the same time should not be followed by decrease in amount of protein, vitamins and mineral substances.
Having determined the actual mass of the body, it is possible to estimate as a first approximation condition of the food. But how to adjust it?
Practice of food of most of the population of our country shows that ensuring necessary amount of fats (mainly animals) and carbohydrates in daily diet does not represent problems. First of all it is necessary to check security of diet with proteins of animal origin (vegetable proteins are less scarce in food of the population of our country and if carbohydrates in diet are present at necessary quantity, then it speaks to thicket about that, as too it is enough vegetable proteins). Then it is necessary to check security of diet with vitamins and mineral substances.
The animal protein which is contained in meat, fish, bird, eggs, milk and dairy products practically all are interchanged i.e. if at our disposal there is no meat, then egg, cottage cheese can quite replace it or even milk is simple. In the first, quite rough, approach it is possible to consider that 200 grams of meat are equivalent to about 200 grams of fish or birds, to 6 eggs, 300 grams of cottage cheese, 1,2 liters of milk. All this gives about 35-40 grams of animal protein a day that is quite close to required physiological norm (47 grams) for the adult doing easy manual work.
Of course, it is desirable that the norm of protein was maintained daily (as it becomes in sanatoria), but there is nothing terrible if in some limits (±20%) within week it changes. And vegetarian, or as called earlier, fast, days weekly to people are more senior than 40 years and not occupied with hard physical activity even are useful. Days, but not weeks as it is demanded by some religious rules. The long absence in food of animal protein is undesirable, and in the attitude towards children is just inadmissible.
Unlike proteins which reserve in organism is small (for 30-40 days of life) vitamins can in essential quantities be laid in store: vitamin C - for 2-6 months, B12 - for 1-2 years, D - for 1 year. Deficit of vitamin C in food is most often observed. In the summer and it is necessary to hurry to make reserve of this very valuable vitamin in organism in the fall, to include in diet during the aestivo-autumnal period more fresh vegetables and fruit. Fresh, but not in the form of boiled, stewed or fried products, and also compotes as at thermal treatment the most part of vitamin C collapses. In the winter and in the spring widely use sauerkraut - the storeroom of vitamin C,
Consumption of the majority of vitamins of group B unlike vitamin C is to a lesser extent subject to seasonal fluctuations (though they are observed too). The most important sources of B1 and PP vitamins are bread from coarse flour and meat, and B2 vitamin - milk. These products have to be constant in the menu. From the point of view of hygiene of food of healthy people white white bread from high-grade flour in the presence of other grades of bread could be not made at all as it is strongly impoverished both by vitamins, and mineral substances. But many appreciate it special tastes, and here specialists bakers on tastes appreciate bread from coarse flour more - it aromatichny, taste is more harmonious than it.
Speaking about bread advantages as source of B1 and RR vitamins, we should not forget also that it contains a lot of starch. And overconsumption of this polysaccharide can be the reason of obesity. Therefore bread, even rough grinding, it is not necessary to be fond. It is considered that on average the person has to eat about 330 grams of bread a day that provides about a half of standard daily rate of B1 and RR vitamins. Nearly a half of standard daily rate of B2 vitamin and to 10% of vitamin A is provided with bottle (0,5 liters) of milk.
Speaking about mineral substances earlier, we noted that from macrocells calcium and phosphorus which contain in milk, meat and fish, from microelements much - iron which most of all contains in bread from coarse flour and in meat are most important in food. The amount of bread recommended per day provides about 10 milligrams of iron that is slightly lower than standard daily rate (14 milligrams).
Not accidentally we have ignored fats: contents them in food is required to be limited generally. However it is necessary to remember that vegetable oils as source of irreplaceable polyunsaturated fatty acids constantly have to join in diet (daily about 20-25 grams).
If to sum up all our reasonings on set of the products providing the optimum content of the main feedstuffs and in optimum ratio (80-90 g of protein, 100-105 g of fat, 380-385 g of carbohydrates - with the power value of 2800-2950 kcal), then we will receive the following daily set:
Daily set of products
Bread in terms of flour - 255 g (if to count for the bread possessing bigger humidity, then will turn out about 330 g); macaroni - 15 g; grain - 25 g; bean - 5 g; potatoes - 265 g;
vegetables and melon - 450 g (including 100 g of cabbage); fruit, berries (fresh and tinned) - 220 g (half of them has to fall on apples);
sugar (as directly, and included in confectionery, grain and other products) - no more than 50-100 g; vegetable oil and products from it - 36 g; meat and products from it - 192 g; fish and products from it - 50 g;
milk and dairy products in terms of milk - 986 g (including 400-500 g directly milk); eggs - at the rate of 2 pieces in 3 days.
It is impossible to take the recommended set literally, for example every day - on 5 grams bean or on 50 grams of fish. The majority of products are interchanged. For example, it is possible to include fish in the menu 1-2 times a week instead of meat, and bean - every two weeks instead of grain.
The provided figures are given from that calculation that these products are bought by the consumer in shop. Therefore, inevitable losses of products which happen at culinary processing, both at cold, and at thermal are not considered. Cold processing is understood as purification of grain of impurity (loss of 1-2%), removal of crust on cheese (loss of 2-4%), cleaning of vegetables from the earth, removal of the damaged parts (loss within 10-30%, including 28% of potatoes, 20% of white cabbage, 20% of carrots and beet, 10% of eggplants), cleaning of some fruit and berries of seeds (12% of apples, 10% of pears, 13% of grapes), cleaning of meat of bones and sinews (25-29% of beef, 26-32 and % of mutton, 12-15% of pork, 28-33% of gutted bird), cleaning of fish of fins, the heads, bones, and in certain cases and from skin (on average 40-55%, including 54% of carp, 42% of Siberian salmon, 54% of pollock, 40% of halibut, 49% of pike perch, 51% of cod, 57% of pike).
Losses of feedstuffs at thermal treatment depend on its look (frying, cooking, roasting). Usually these losses are summed up with losses at direct consumption (at portsionirovaniye, the remains on plate, accidental damage). In the sum these losses make for proteins 10%, for fats - 16%, for carbohydrates - 15%.
Therefore actually consumed quantity of products are less bought in shop for 15-60% depending on type of product, and on average - on one third.
It must be kept in mind that the given daily set of products providing full consumption of proteins, fats and carbohydrates of the "average" adult, unfortunately, cannot provide the same full consumption of vitamins. They all the same lack for 20-40%. And it is especially felt during the winter and spring period. (We will notice that during this period the human body resilience to diseases decreases). Therefore if there is no opportunity to compensate shortage of vitamins by natural products (cabbage, greens), we recommend to accept polyvitaminic preparations (for example, one course of 20-30 days - in the winter, another same - in the spring).
Now, when we know not only the principles of balanced diet, but also rational set of products, conditions of their interchangeability and role in food, we will pass directly to drawing up the menu.