Healthy nutrition for weight loss
"No to having a snack!" - golden rules of food
Healthy nutrition on Ayurveda
Importance of healthy nutrition
Bases of dietary treatment of obesity
Providing person with full-fledged products
Healthy nutrition for every day
Correct food at fitness classes
Bases of balanced diet
Principle of balance of daily diet
Three principles of balanced diet
Role of balanced diet for health
Healthy food for weight loss of adults
Basic principles of the balanced food
Principles of pulse food
Methods of removal of radionuclides from food
Told above brings us to conclusion: how many chemicals the adult's organism spends, as much has to arrive them with food. The majority of them are capable to be synthesized in organism. Some are as if initial: they cannot be synthesized and have to arrive surely with food. Therefore all feedstuffs share on replaceable (they are synthesized in the organism) and irreplaceable (arriving with food). Number of amino acids - valine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophane and phenylalanine concern to the last; fatty acids - linoleic and linolenic, vitamins and mineral substances.
Course of reactions of metabolism from the point of view of quantitative is studied by science about food - nutritsiologiya. She answers question how many each of substances is spent and how many it is formed in the course of life activity.
This quantitative principle allows to develop physiological norms of need of human body for feedstuffs.
In the Soviet Union the first such evidence-based norms have been developed in the thirties. Their review has been carried out in 1951 - then they have been for the first time approved by the Ministry of Health of the USSR. Till recent time we used the norms approved in 1968 and which have played important role the organizations of balanced diet of wide groups of the population. However now they have become outdated and it was required to bring a number of the specifications connected with changes of character of work of people, with strengthening of process of acceleration at children's age with shifts in age and sex structure of the population, with development of new more exact methods of assessment of dependence between food and health, and also with changes of some other conditions influencing needs for feedstuffs.
Establishment of physiological norms of food - the end result of the researches which are widely carried out around the world in the field of physiology, biochemistry and hygiene of food. They are developed on the basis of detailed studying of energy expenditure, and also establishment of indicators of proteinaceous, fatty, carbohydrate, vitamin and mineral exchange at the different groups of the population living in different geographical zones. These norms define needs of human body for energy, for total quantity of proteins including proteins of animal origin, in total quantity of fats, including in vegetable oils, in vitamins and mineral substances depending on sex, age, nature of work and life, physiological states and climatic conditions.
In basis of new "Norms of physiological needs for feedstuffs and energy for different groups of the population", developed by medical institutions of the country under the direction of Institute of food and approved by the Ministry of Health in March, 1982, the concept of the balanced food is put.
Energy expenditure at the persons occupied with the main professions was studied by number of the scientific organizations led by Institute of food in many regions of the country. Researches have shown that daily energy expenditure of both rural, and urban population steadily decreases. However the complete elimination of physical intense and hard work is not reached yet. Therefore the adult able-bodied population is divided into the following five groups now:
- Mainly intellectual
- Physical, not demanding considerable energy expenditure
- Mechanized average weight
- Heavy manual
1 group includes heads of the enterprises and organizations; technical personnel which work does not demand essential physical activity; health workers (except doctors-surgeons, nurses, nurses); teachers, tutors (except sports); scientists, writers, journalists; cultural and educational workers; planners and accountants; secretaries, clerks; workers of different categories which work is connected with considerable nervous tension in the absence of essential physical activity (on control panels), dispatchers, etc.
The technical personnel which work causes some physical efforts belong to the 2nd group; the persons occupied in the automated processes in the radio-electronic industry; sewers; agronomists, livestock specialists, veterinarians, nurses and nurses; sellers of manufactured goods stores; workers of services industry; hour industry; communication and telegraph; teachers, instructors of physical culture and sport, trainers.
3 group is made by the machine operators (occupied in metal working and woodworking); mechanics, servicemen, adjusters; doctors-surgeons; chemists; textile workers, shoemakers; drivers of different types of transport; employees of the food industry; household service and public catering; sellers of foodstuff; foremen of tractor and field crews; railroad workers; water-transport workers; working at car - and electrotransport; operators of hoisting-and-transport mechanisms; printers.
The 4th group includes construction workers; bulk of agricultural workers and machine operators; mining workers who work on surface; employees of the oil and gas industry; metallurgists and founders, except the faces carried to the V group.
The 5th group has included the miners occupied directly in underground pits; steelmakers; valshchik of the wood and workers on wood cutting; bricklayers, concreters; navvies; loaders whose work is not mechanized; the persons making construction materials which work is also not mechanized.
Each of groups is divided into three age intervals: 18-29, 30-39, 40-59 years.
The need for the power value of food in groups fluctuates depending on age and floor: 1 group - 2200 - 2800 kcal; The 2nd group - 2350-3000 kcal; The 3rd group - 2500-3200 kcal; The 4th group - 2900-3700 kcal; The 5th group - 3900-4300 kcal (women do not enter into it).
For children and teenagers (till 17 flyings) the need for the power value of food is differentiated on 10 groups. For the teenagers who are trained in technological schools increase in need for feedstuffs and energy by 10-15% is provided. Differentiation depending on floor is entered since 11.
In the developed countries in connection with continuous increase in life expectancy and consequently, changes of age structure the number of faces of the senior contingents of the population steadily raises. They are divided into two groups: 60-74 years, and 75 years are also more senior that corresponds to the international criteria. The need for the power value of food for these groups makes 2000-2300 kcal for men and 1900-2100 kcal for women. As this part of the population includes also the persons of retirement age continuing to work the norm of feedstuffs for them has to be increased.
So, norms of food are evidence-based now. At the same time both for planning countrywide, and for each person it is separately extremely important to know need for protein. It is established that its optimum physiological norm has to be one and a half times more, than it is necessary for maintenance of nitrogenous balance at which quantity removed with urine and stake of nitrogen equally received with food. This reserve of protein in organism is necessary for performance of the work demanding big tension for timely and correct response to stressful situations, for the maximum resilience to infectious diseases and other adverse effects of factors of external environment. In the power purposes the organism uses mainly carbohydrates and fats. However at the same time also expenditure of proteins, for example result from strengthening of muscular contractions. The need for irreplaceable amino acids is provided with enough full-fledged animal protein.
Taking into account everything told, the daily need for protein for new norms averages about 85 g per capita. If to differentiate them on separate groups, then for 1 group the share of protein makes 13% of all feedstuffs of diet (on caloric content), for 2 and 3 - 12%, for 4 and 5 groups - 11%.
The researches conducted at Institute of food have shown that the optimum share of animal protein for adult population makes 55% of the general protein of diet.
For children and teenagers it has to be slightly higher.
When determining need for fats need of providing organism with the full-fledged fatty substances which are carriers of polyunsaturated irreplaceable fatty acids, and also fat-soluble vitamins is taken into account.
In earlier operating norms the specific weight of fats equaled 30% of all feedstuffs of diet (on caloric content). Now scientists have established that such content of fats in daily diet, as a rule, does not provide necessary need for polyunsaturated fatty acids. The new norm of need for fats is on average determined in the amount of 33% of all feedstuffs in diet (by caloric content) with differentiation on zones: for the southern zones - 27-28%, for northern - 37-40.
From total quantity of fat of 30% have to fall to the share of vegetable - carriers of irreplaceable polyunsaturated fatty acids. Also rationing of linolic acid if it 4-6% contain (on caloric content), then it is possible to consider biologically full diet at any fatty composition is entered.
In new norms the content of carbohydrates is a little reduced - it is connected first of all with the general decrease in need for the power value of food.
It is interesting to compare ratio of two main sources of carbohydrates - starch and sugars. Now the share of sugars in food is very high and tends to further increase. At the same time the balanced diet assumes inclusion of essential quantities of the products containing starch - from the physiological point of view it is more valuable and less dangerous. Really, sugar promotes developing of caries of teeth. Starch has no such effect. Besides, at consumption of sugar in significant amounts concentration of glucose in blood increases, and it is already risk factor because diabetes can develop. The starch which is digested in food path more slowly has no such effect. Therefore, there is question of possibility of rationing of carbohydrates on the main sources of their receipt - to starch and sugars. It cannot be considered already finally solved, however it is clear that consumption of sugars and confectionery should be limited as much as possible.
Important part of problem of rationing of feedstuffs - definition of need for vitamins which are necessary for life activity and which the organism receives mainly for the account of the products entering diets.
By researches of the last years it is established what in the developed countries at considerable part of the population, especially at pregnant women and the feeding women, pupils, elderly people, is observed gipovitaminozny, that is worsened in comparison with norm, state. All this is explained by the same violation of the rules of balanced diet, and also changes of structure of diets: consumption refined, high-calorific, tinned or it is long the stored products deprived of vitamins or poor in them. Therefore, correction of vitamin security (development of diets with the maximum use of natural products - carriers of vitamins, vitaminization of food, application of vitamin preparations) and setting standards of consumption of vitamins is necessary.
The institute of food has specified sizes of need for B2, A and D vitamins, and also for the first time in our country norms on three vitamins - folatsin are established (folic acid), B12 and E vitamins.
Also norms of need for four mineral substances - calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron are defined.