The knowledge of the reasons of development of the obesity having so serious consequences for health of the person is of great importance for the prevention and treatment of this disease.
Violation of balance between receipt in energy organism with food and energy expenditure of organism is basic reason of development of obesity. In other words, obesity develops as a result of excess receipt of energy with food and not respectively smaller power consumption organism.
It is necessary to emphasize that excess of energy comes in that case when the person gives preference to the food rich with digestible carbohydrates and fats of animal origin. Sugar, candies, jam, honey, cookies, cake concern to the first; cakes, pies. Flour products, grain, potatoes are rich with carbohydrates. From fats of animal origin in development of obesity mutton, pork, beef fats are of great importance.
The person receives during a day of on average about 100 g of proteins, 100 g of fats and 400-450 g of carbohydrates. At combustion in organism of 1 g of carbohydrates and proteins 4 kcal of energy, 1 g of fats - 9 kcal are allocated. From this it follows that the person receives energy mainly at the expense of carbohydrates and fats. At abuse of the products rich with carbohydrates and fats, the excess amount of energy turns in organism into fats if the person does not spend this surplus.
Other important indicator of power balance of organism is the level of energy expenditure. Energy expenditure of organism consists of the so-called "main exchange" and expenditure for physical activity. The main exchange is called the amount of heat developed by organism at rest. This energy expenditure is mainly connected with activity of the blood circulatory system, breath, digestion. The size of the main exchange depends on the weight and growth, surface of body, sex, age, body temperature, condition of endocrine system of organism. The person at rest allocates during a day of 1500-1800 kcal. Any work leads to additional wasting of energy. The organism on average spends 2000-2500 kcal a day for easy physical activity, and on heavy - to 4000-6000 kcal.
The slow-moving way of life (sedentary work, lack of physical activities out of work, the termination of occupations as physical culture and sport, long rest after the working day) reduces organism energy expenditure that in combination with receipt in organism of excess amount of energy plays the leading role in emergence of excess body weight due to adjournment of fat in fatty store rooms (subcutaneous fat, fat in abdominal cavity, in internals).
In development of obesity the diet, meal speed matters. It is established that developing of obesity is promoted by rare meals, the use of the main share of food in the evening, fast food. It and is clear because at rare meals at the person the strong feeling of hunger develops, and it against will accepts large number of food before saturation. Obesity is promoted by also fast food as for a short time the food does not manage to be soaked up in digestive bodies and the feeling of saturation comes from stomach stretching, but not from blood saturation by the soaked-up feedstuffs.
Violation of balance between consumption of energy with food and its expenditure for power needs of organism is though the main, but not the only reason of obesity at women though this factor matters in 90% of all cases of obesity. In other cases in development of obesity hereditary and constitutional factors, damage of the neurohormonal centers regulating fatty exchange matter. Obesity can also be consequence of violation of the central nervous system, endocrine bodies, first of all hypophysis, adrenal glands, thyroid, pancreas, gonads.
Especially it is necessary to point to decrease in activity of thyroid gland. In these cases obesity gives in to treatment by gland hormone preparations. Increase of cases of obesity among women after 50 years somewhat can be explained with decrease in function of gonads. It should be noted that so-called endocrine forms of obesity, that is the obesity connected with violation of functions of endocrine glands demand special treatment and in this article will not be considered.
Irrational food during certain periods of life, especially at children's and teenage age, is one of the main factors of risk of obesity. Development of obesity during pregnancy, feedings by breast is in most cases connected with excess food.
The opinion is widespread that the pregnant woman and the nursing woman for good development of fruit and growth of the child has to eat "for two". Really, food of pregnant women and the nursing women has to differ somewhat as during this period the need of organism for proteins, vitamins and energy increases. It is worth to remember that at this time food has to be full, enriched with vitamins, mineral substances, but not excessive. If to consider that during pregnancy most of women leads the slow-moving, sparing life against the strengthened food, and some of them are forced to observe bed rest, then the beginning of obesity during these periods of life is quite explainable.
In development of obesity hereditary predisposition has certain value. Regarding cases development of obesity can be connected with assimilation of family habits in food. The opinion of scientists on heredity role in development of obesity is ambiguous. If one researchers do not find confirmation of role of heredity in developing of this disease, then others point that in forming of genetic predisposition to obesity the food factor, in particular food overload in the pre-natal period of development in the period of the early childhood is of great importance.
Certain favorable conditions are necessary for implementation and manifestation of genetic predisposition. Without excess irrational food even at genetic predisposition to obesity it can not develop. The main place in this plan should be allocated to family traditions of plentiful high-calorific food when the overfeeding of children since the early childhood takes place.
Thus, the use of food which power value exceeds power expenses of organism is the leading reason of development of obesity. The researches conducted at Institute of food have shown that in 80-90% of cases of obesity the leading value in its origin has food factor.
What reasons of development of obesity among the population?
According to our researches, the reason of development of obesity in 33% inspected, having obesity is food violation, at 27% - decrease in energy expenditure, at 7% - hereditary factors, and at 15% the beginning of development of this disease is connected with the life periods interfaced to endocrine changes in organism.
It is natural that at the same person the combination of these factors can take place. Most often the food factor combination to decrease in power expenses of organism met. From among violations of food the overeating, abuse of bread, flour products, potatoes were most often observed, and among factors of decrease in energy expenditure it should be noted slow-moving way of life, sedentary work, the termination of exercises and sport, long forced bed rest (illness, injuries, operations).
In origin of obesity endocrine changes during puberty, climax, pregnancy, feeding by breast, and also violations of menstrual cycle, operation on endocrine bodies (thyroid gland, ovary), treatment by different hormonal preparations mattered. From hereditary factors availability of obesity at parents, the grandmother and the grandfather mattered.
As in development of obesity food factors have the leading value, we will stop in more detail on the average daily use of bread, bakery products, sugar, fats, carbohydrates and proteins.
Nature of food of city dwellers, %
|The use in days||Normal weight||Excess weight|
|it is more than 500 g||12,8||18,7|
|The Sahara is more than 100 g||39,1||40,1|
|The squirrel is less than 75 g||34,8||42,4|
|It is more than 100 g of fats||28,5||45,2|
|It is more than 500 g of carbohydrates||12,7||19,8|
|it is more than 4000 kcal||2,7||9.3|
Apparently from the table, from among the persons having the excess weight of body, 57% used a day more than 350 g of bread, including 19% - more than 500 g whereas those among people with normal body weight there were 51 and 13%.
More than 100 g of fats a day received 45% of the people having excess body weight, and 28% of persons with normal weight.
Carbohydrates more than 500 g a day used respectively 20 and 13%.
Due to such violations in food the caloric content of daily diet exceeded 3000 kcal at 44% inspected a lot of body weight and at 28% with normal weight.