Complications of obesity

осложнения ожирения
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30-40 years ago most of people did not pay attention to excess weight, and some part of the population considered it as sign of health and even certain benefit, sign of material welfare.

There was time when at the people who had a rest in rest houses or treated in sanatoria, acquaintances asked: "On how many kilograms has recovered?". If the person put on weight, then considered that it is useful and it became healthier.

Now the majority inclines to opinion that excess weight after all not sign of health and it is necessary to get rid of it. For anybody not secret that excess weight affects health, physical and intellectual efficiency of the person.

The people having obesity become sluggish, unresourceful, indifferent to surrounding. They are disturbed by headaches, short wind and heartbeat at physical activities, perspiration, pains in joints of the lower extremities. These are signs of complications of obesity which number treat atherosclerosis, stenocardia, myocardial infarction, arterial hypertension, diabetes, chronic acalculous and kalkulezny cholecystitis, obmennodistrofichesky polyarthritis. The above-stated complications are caused mainly by metabolic disorders and excess adjournment of fat in bodies.

работа сердца Violation of work of heart at obesity is connected with variety of reasons, and first of all - with big accumulation of fat in abdominal cavity owing to what the intra belly pressure which promotes increase of level of standing of diaphragm increases. It complicates work of heart and breath. Besides, fat is laid on cover of heart and it is surrounded with fatty armor. Along with it fatty deposits get into heart muscle. All this considerably complicates reduction of heart and reduces its functionality.

At obesity fats are laid also in vessels that creates the additional resistance to blood-groove, leads to increase of blood pressure and to decrease in blood supply of bodies and fabrics. We have described the mechanism of development of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hypertensive illness.

одышка Asthma at obesity is connected not only with weakening of work of heart. It is caused also by changes of respiratory organs.

The so-called pikkviksky syndrome for the first time described by Ch. Dickens in "Notes of Pikkviksky club" is known. This syndrome is characterized by considerable obesity, drowsiness, cyanosis of the person, convulsive twitching of muscles, especially mimic, discontinuous breath.

Basic reason of these phenomena - gradual restriction of respiratory movements with grease layer both in thorax, and out of it. It leads to superficial frequent breath that in turn leads to decrease in ventilation of lungs. The last causes lowering of intake of oxygen in organism and accumulation of carbon dioxide.

At obesity considerable violations are observed and from digestive organs. Fatty accumulation are postponed not only on walls of stomach, intestines, gall bladder, but also in liver.

органы пищеварения The fatty infiltration of these bodies leads to violation of digestion, absorption and digestion of feedstuffs, neutralization and removal of the final products of metabolism. At the expressed obesity degrees the locks connected with delay of motive function of intestines often are observed.

Accumulation of excess fat in liver leads to development of chronic diseases of liver, up to cirrhosis. Because of metabolic disorder at corpulent people stones in gall bladder are often formed.

The researches conducted in scientific research institute of regional problems of food testify: practically at all patients with obesity liver obesity which has an adverse effect almost on all its functions develops, and in 14% of cases of obesity the liver disease as chronic hepatitis takes place. There are changes and in functions of pancreas which are expressed in decrease in reserves of secretory activity, in decrease in one and increase of other enzymes of this body playing important role in digestion.

At 14% of patients chronic pancreatitis develops. Along with it violation of endocrine function of pancreas is observed. At part of patients with obesity allocation violation by this gland of important hormone - insulin takes place that leads to the noticeable shifts in exchange of carbohydrates causing development of diabetes in 8,6% of supervision.

Obesity often is followed by stomach diseases (gastritises), kidneys. It is reflected and on condition of the central nervous system of the person - the sleep is interrupted, appetite increases, thirst appears. At the men having obesity the sexual potentiality is often broken, women have menstrual cycle. Quite often infertility takes place.

High incidence of the people having obesity increases mortality among them. So, according to world statistics, mortality among corpulent is twice higher in comparison with the people having normal body weight. According to the statistics insurance companies of the USA, among corpulent coronary heart disease mortality is observed twice more often than among persons with normal body weight, from cholelithiasis - by 2-2,8 times, from diabetes - to 4 times, from cirrhosis - by 1,5-2 times. It is counted that life expectancy of corpulent is reduced on 5-10.

The analysis of incidence of city dwellers shows that disease of cardiovascular system, chronic diseases of zhelchevyvodyashchy ways, pancreas among persons with excess body weight occur several times more often than among people with normal body weight.

Diseases People from normal
% body weight
People from excessive
% body weight
ожирение
Stenocardia 1,4 5,7
Myocardial infarction 0,2 0,8
Atherosclerosis 0,7 3,0
Arterial hypertension 2,5 13,6
Diabetes 0,2 1,2
Chronic cholecystitis 3,0 10,6
Cholelithiasis 0,4 1,5
Urolithic illness 0,7 2,1
Arthroses, arthritises 0,05 0,7

It is necessary to emphasize that the frequency of diseases depended on degree of expressiveness of excess body weight. From among the people having obesity of 1 degree, the arterial hypertension has come to light at 13%, and at obesity 3 degrees - already at 30%; coronary heart disease - at 4 and 8%; diabetes - at 0,6 and 4,6%, chronic cholecystitis - at 8 and 21% respectively, that is incidence increased in process of increase in excess body weight.

Thus, at obesity there are considerable changes from internals to violation of the major functions of organism. In process of progressing of obesity these violations are aggravated that raises invalidism and mortality among corpulent. It emphasizes not only medical, but also social value of fight against obesity.