As there is obesity
|Obesity - present problem|
|Prevention of obesity|
|Complications of obesity|
|Medical foods at obesity|
|Control of weight|
From the point of view of medicine, obesity – the illness arising at positive power and fatty balance. In other words, when consumption of fatty calories and energy in general exceeds their expenses for a long time, there is accumulation of fat in organism.
Except consumption of excess of energy obesity can be provoked:
- improper feeding,
- insufficient physical activity,
- endocrine violations,
- genetic predisposition.
Sleep disorders, diseases, such as quinsy and flu, can also break fatty balance in organism. But such violations, as a rule, short-term. Much more difficult than situation when excess weight appears owing to the reasons of psychological character. There can be two manifestations of frustration: or the person "jams" negative emotions, or he reduces sensitivity of the center of saturation in brain, and then it is imperceptible for itself begins to consume the bigger volume of food.
Problem, actual for many women, – obesity after the delivery. During pregnancy and lactation the metabolism of mother is reconstructed in the mode of "energy accumulation". And it is normal. It is abnormal when and after feeding of the child type of exchange processes - accumulative. Then there is incubation of fatty tissue and, as a result, obesity.
Age – one more factor provoking emergence of excess weight. As a rule, after 30 flyings there is reorganization of a number of the special centers of brain including the center of appetite. That is for suppression of feeling of hunger the person needs more food. Besides age obesity is provoked by features of metabolism of the adult. It is no secret that in young organism all exchange processes proceed much quicker.
Essential value in development of obesity can have decrease in lipolysis (fat splitting) owing to dominance of tone of parasympathetic department of vegetative nervous system over sympathetic. It leads to stimulation of production of insulin r-cages of pancreatic islands (Langergans's islands) with the subsequent obesity. Believe that the factor promoting strengthening of secretion of insulin and progressing of obesity is r-endorphine. The last is synthesized by cages of adenogipofiz. The role of endocrine factors in development of usual obesity is small. However in development of symptomatic obesity attach to endocrine factors essential significance.
Owing to insufficient products of zhiromobilizuyushchy hormones (STG, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and glucagon) decrease in lipolysis happens III. It is the reason of insufficient use of fatty depots as power source. To development of obesity, first of all symptomatic, promote lowering of products of sex hormones that leads to shift of exchange of glucose on pentozny cycle, and also increase of products of the glucocorticoids which are strengthening adjournment of glycogen in liver and braking thereof lipolysis. Excess adjournment of fat leads most often to defeat of cardiovascular system, respiratory organs with possible development warm or pulmonary heart failure, dysfunction of digestive tract, liver, etc. At obesity there is increase in absolute amount of the general and extracellular liquid with its simultaneous reduction in intracellular space. Intracellular dehydration amplifies with increase of body weight and becomes the most expressed at III and IV degrees of obesity.
Metabolic mechanisms of obesity
- Reserves of carbohydrates in organism are rather small. They are approximately equal to their daily reception with food. In this regard the mechanism of economy of carbohydrates was developed.
- At increase in diet of share of fats the speed of oxidation of carbohydrates decreases. The corresponding reduction of respiratory coefficient (the relation of speed of formation of CO2 to the speed of consumption of O2) testifies to it. It is considered that apple cider vinegar for weight loss - really promotes combustion of fats both at obesity, and at the increased its accumulation.
- If it does not occur (at frustration of the mechanism of inhibition of glycogenolysis in the conditions of high concentration of fats in blood), the mechanism providing the increase of appetite and increase in meal aimed at providing necessary quantity in organism of carbohydrates is activated.
- In these conditions fats collect in the form of triglycerides. Obesity develops.
Influence of heredity on development of obesity is proved by many researches.
For example, uniovular twins often have identical type and degree of obesity.
In the presence of obesity at both parents children have it in 80% of cases, in the presence of obesity at one of parents - in 40%, and in the absence of obesity at roditeleyv 10%, cases.
The hereditary factor is considered as polygenic.
And here consider inheritance of features of the central regulatory systems, enzymatic regulation of metabolism of fatty cages (adipocytes), "cultural", family behavioural features of the person in food.
Constitutions of fatty tissue (hyper plastic and hypertrophic types) attach now smaller significance as at the expressed obesity both those and other types take place, i.e. the expressed obesity is followed not only hypertrophy of adipocytes, but also increase in their quantity.Read still: