Efficient methods of treatment of obesity
Fight against obesity represents very difficult task because after the termination of complex of medical actions the possibility of gradual recovery of excess weight is always big. Methods of treatment of obesity are characterized by variety of ways and means of fight. At all the variety all of them are directed on:
- restriction of receipt of energy with food, education of the correct habits of food, development of actions for change of behavior, way of life, forming of culture of food; suppression of appetite by impact on the food centers medicines; observance of diet - restriction of intake of power-intensive foodstuff and correction of diet, complete and partial starvation;
- restriction of absorption and digestion of feedstuffs by purpose of depletive, badly assimilable coarse-fibered products, cleaning enemas and even excision of part of intestines for the purpose of reduction of surface of absorption;
- increase in power expenses of organism by purpose of various physical activities;
- strengthening of processes of disintegration of fats in fatty stocks of organism, influence on the hormonal status of the organism which is of great importance in education and combustion of fats and carbohydrates, removal of excess of water from organism by purpose of diuretics;
- total and partial block, delay or reorientation of separate links of metabolism for the purpose of impact on the mechanisms promoting development of obesity.
It is necessary to notice that despite big variety of the offered ways of therapy of obesity, any of them does not give lasting effect if not to apply it it is long, without big breaks. Searches of effective methods of fight against obesity continue.
Now to questions of fight against obesity it is more reasonable to approach as treatment of chronic disease which purpose is the greatest possible improvement of health of the person and long maintenance of its working capacity. The knowledge of the reasons and ways of development of obesity allows to claim that the therapy constructed taking into account the reasons and ways of development of disease has to promote stabilization or elimination of many pathological processes, normalization of indicators of metabolism, functions of bodies and systems.
Long-term experience of clinical supervision of doctors of the whole world gives the grounds to consider that by means of one any method of treatment it is not possible to achieve success now. In our country from numerous ways of fight against obesity the greatest distribution was gained by complex therapy in which program join observance of diet of the lowered power value, education of culture of food (individual and family), behavioural actions, physical activities and other methods of treatment.
What methods of treatment were used in the past and applied now?
- medical foods
- medicinal therapy
- medical physical culture
- physical methods of treatment
- operational treatment
- medical starvation
Medical foods are basis of all complex applied to treatment of obesity. There is set of different diets. Some of them become popular among the young women inclined to completeness in spite of the fact that other fashionable diets are defective from the point of view of science about food. Therefore independent application of such diets without chemical composition and power value, and also need of organism for feedstuffs and energy, can do irreparable harm to human body.
Let's consider some fashionable diets.
The "French" diet provides decrease in power value to 1500 kcal a day due to reduction of the use of the products containing carbohydrates and fats at normal receipt in organism of proteins.
In day it is allowed to eat 250-300 g of the products which are protein sources: on 100 g of meat, cottage cheese and fish or on 100 g of sausage, fishes, 50 g of cheese and one egg. Crude and boiled vegetables and fruit are not excluded from diet (except for potatoes which are rich with carbohydrates). Food is eaten 6 times a day in the small portions.
This diet approaches the diets recommended at us in the country for application in stationary conditions for a short time - 2-3 weeks. Short time it can use also in house conditions if your work is not connected with big energy expenditure. As negative side of this diet it is necessary to consider impossibility of its prolonged use in house conditions because of low power value, especially when work is connected with big physical activities.
The "Chinese" diet on chemical composition comes nearer to previous with only that difference that the caloric content of daily diet is limited even more here - to 1200 kcal due to restriction of carbohydrates to 90 g. Food is recommended to be eaten in 3 receptions.
There is approximate day diet: for breakfast of 100 g of cheese and glass of black coffee with 1 teaspoon of sugar; for lunch - 2 soft-boiled eggs and glass of coffee with sugar piece; for dinner - 200 g of cottage cheese and glass of tea with sugar piece.
Apparently from the list of products, the diet cannot be considered at all full as in it completely there are no vegetables and fruit.
This diet can be recommended only for a short time.
The "rice" diet became one of the most fashionable recently.
In day 200 g of the rice soaked and welded on water without salt are eaten. Influence of this diet on body weight is caused by the low caloric content of day diet.
By itself it is clear that such diet it is impossible to apply long time because it is defective in every respect.
From the point of view of science about pitany it can be used as fasting day - 1 time in 7-10 days.
Along with listed, the set of other diets which have also not found wide circulation abroad is offered. As the principles of creation of one serves restriction of carbohydrates and excess of fats (Voyenno's diet - Air Forces of the USA, the Hollywood diet, Atkins's diet), others - restriction of carbohydrates and excess of protein and alcoholic beverages (-point diet, diet of Bentinga). Many of diets are effective, however are expensive and difficult feasible.
Loss speed in weight as a result of application of different options of diets fluctuates over a wide range and theoretically has to average about 200 g a day when using diet with the power value of 1000 kcal. However it is necessary to notice that identical dietary programs yield very different results.
In our country diets with restriction of caloric content are also applied to treatment of obesity. It will be a question of them in the following articles.