Cultural food for beautiful figure
Gleb Nikolaevich Propastin to subtleties has studied problems of modern dietology, compatibility of physical exercises with diet at weight reduction. Conversations with professor, and also councils of the candidate of science Maria Pavlovna Sotnikova have allowed the author to state the following below reason on strategy of food of the man of average years having some excesses of weight.
Speak: the man is what he eats. Variety of food has exerted huge impact on development of organism of the ancestor of the person, and especially his brain. Time quickly expands this variety. In the nature there are not enough plants and animals who in this or that look would do not suit us in food.
However, now our diet joins constantly growing number of the food products synthesized by means of chemistry. Also the quantity of the natural food to a greater or lesser extent subjected to poisoning with industrial wastes or other negative impacts of human activity increases. And we eat all this, remaining almost healthy people in the majority.
The famous scientist R. Makkerrison for many years fed animals with the boiled, fried, baked and synthesized food which is usually used by people. As a result animals have got many of "human" diseases: various gastrointestinal frustration (animals have only gastric poisonings; ulcers and cancer of stomach it are almost unknown), diseases of endocrine glands, cardiovascular, urological and skin diseases (including hair loss), respiratory diseases, eyes and teeth, frustration of nervous system. "The human body itself has to manage cookery", - the philosopher Posidony Rodossky said. Certainly, in general it would be unreasonable to refuse usual ways of cooking, but it is impossible to forget also that the share of natural crude products in our diet has to be as much as possible considerable.
The Ancient Greek poet Hesiod wrote twenty seven centuries ago: "Hunger and love rule the world". Since then the civilized mankind to something has learned, in particular art to feed itself. Unfortunately, presently for too many people this sphere has turned as if into art for the sake of art. From physiological need the food is often transformed to process of pleasure, savoring. The purposes purely biological give way to emotional. In the choice of the purpose it is necessary to pay for mistakes: the food for the sake of the process of food cruelly revenges.
In our full times we have almost forgotten what is true hunger what is the valid need of organism for food. Now people most often take the chronic gastritny neurosis developed by habit for hunger is several times a day. In principle three - or four times food in the same hours develops good rhythm in work of internals. But, on the other hand, occasionally disorients control centers of digestion, accustoming to receive organism food even then when there is no need in it. That is why, before sitting down at table, it is necessary to wonder: and whether it is impossible to do without meal this time, to quietly wait for the following meal or to be limited to minimum?
Severe Spartans executed cooks when convicted them of excessive refinement. Our many culinary specialists could work dauntlessly and in ancient Sparta, but if to speak seriously, then the tendency to prepare tasty and various dishes is expected the people with common sense knowing the requirements and the norm. French say that in food and love it is dangerous to be satiated. It is good when the person rises because of table, still having easy desire something to eat.
It is sign of the cultural relation to food.
One more such sign - ability to choose the dishes meeting requirements of organism. It is known that our organism first of all needs proteins, fats and carbohydrates, and also vitamins, mineral substances and microelements.
In several areas of Ukraine examination of very big group of people of different professions, age and state of health has been conducted. 23 percent of inspected had excess weight. It has become clear that they eat bread 6 percent more, than people of normal weight, potatoes - for 35 percent, sugar - on 34 and fats - for 23 percent. Consumption of other products remained within norm. It is interesting that results of this inspection have allowed to compare level of consumption of food of our contemporaries to data of last years. For the last half a century in diet of Ukrainians of proteins it became 20-25 percent more, fats - for 35-40 percent. Consumption of carbohydrates remained at the former level, but there was it due to increase in consumption of sugar and reduction of bread. Let's notice that increase of diet has happened against considerable reduction of physical activities.
The most valuable component of food - proteins. They are the main material of structure of the cells and fabrics. According to the UN, consumption of protein in Russia, the USA, England, France, pponiya on average equals to 90 grams a day on one person, the proteinaceous norm established by World Health Organization is much lower - only 53 grams a day.
One of the products which are most saturated with proteins - skim cheese; in it 17 percent of protein and are not enough fat (0,5 percent). At this cottage cheese low caloric content (80 kilocalories on 100 grams of product) that allows to recommend it to corpulent people. In it there are a lot of full-fledged proteins which are almost completely acquired by organism, necessary organic acids, mineral substances (phosphorus, calcium, potassium). Such cottage cheese is especially useful to small children and people of old age.
Many squirrel contains also in meat (14-20 percent), fish (12-16 percent), cheese (30 percent).
Fats - concentrates of energy and suppliers of number of substances, irreplaceable for organism. Therefore even at big excesses of weight completely it is impossible to refuse preference fats. It is necessary to give to fats of plant origin which are better for using in the form of seasoning to salads. Vegetable oil when heating loses the best properties. Very harmfully to use the overroasted fat. In day no more than 80-100 grams of fat are recommended to the person. For orientation it is possible to report that 100 grams of milk contain 3 grams of fat, in 100 grams of sour cream - 25, pork - 30, butter - about 85 grams of fat.
The main function of carbohydrates - supply of organism with energy. Carbohydrates usually give to organism of 50-60 percent of the calories consumed by it, but can be replaced with other power sources. Therefore they are often called "empty calories". Energy is released as a result of continuously proceeding by means of the inhaled oxygen of processes of oxidation which final products - carbon dioxide and water - are removed from organism. It is considered that people of brainwork have daily need for carbohydrates - 400-500 grams, at elderly people it is less - 300-400 grams, at people of hard physical work and athletes - to 800-900 grams.
100 grams of sugar contain 95 grams of carbohydrates, 100 grams of rice - 72, semolina - 70, buckwheat - 64, bread - 42-50, potatoes - 20, grapes - 17 grams.
One of the most important components of food are vitamins.
Vitamin A is necessary for ensuring normal sight, growth, condition of skin and mucous covers. It is available in cod-liver oil, liver, dairy products, meat, carrots, tomatoes, onions, pepper.
Vitamins of group B increase working capacity, attention, muscular force, appetite, promote strengthening of immune protection of organism. They contain in yeast, the crude rice, peas, haricot, walnuts, peanut, egg yolk.
Vitamin C is necessary to organism in rather large numbers. At shortage of this vitamin permeability and fragility of the smallest blood vessels sharply increases, ability of organism to formation of the antibodies interfering penetration of infections decreases. Blackcurrant, dogrose, green onions, cabbage, garlic, tomatoes, lemons, red pepper, oranges are richest with vitamin C. These products, and also other vegetables and fruit are, as a rule, rich with other vitamins, and also mineral substances and microelements necessary for organism.
The crude vegetable food is also the main supplier of the so-called antioxidants normalizing processes of oxidation in cages. These substances are extremely important for prevention of the sclerous phenomena and all forms of aging of organism. Antioxidants are first of all the products containing vitamin E, and also vitamins A and Page. Most of all vitamin E in germs of cereals, in green vegetables and vegetable oil. 100 grams of wheaten germs (in other words, in the sprouted wheat grains) contain 25 milligrams of vitamin E, in vegetables - 1,5-2 milligrams, in grains of bean cultures - 5 milligrams. The daily need of the adult for vitamin E is defined in 20-30 milligrams.
It is interesting that some specialists use in the practice the sprouted wheat grains for prevention of processes of aging. So, the Swiss doctor K. Schmidt considers that regular reception of the sprouted wheat grains (50-100 grams a day) has the rejuvenating effect on organism, is developed by immunity to catarrhal diseases, improves the general state of health. "p has begun to accept the sprouted wheat grain for breakfast, - she writes, - when I was 54 years old. In several months I have felt much better, than before, hair my, gray-haired and rare, have found initial coloring, became dense and elastic, sight has improved. Now, at 75-year age, I feel perfectly, I work not less productively, than in young years".
The chemical reactions which are continuously going in our organism metabolism are impossible without water. Water - fine solvent, and all feedstuffs coming to our organism can then pass into blood only in the form of water solutions. Daily need of the person for water - 2000-3000 grams. This volume is summed up from about 1000 grams arriving in the form of drinking water, tea, coffee; 400-500 grams which the organism receives with broths and soups; The usual firm food containing nevertheless big percent of water gives 700 grams; 300-400 grams of water are the final product of chemical reactions in organism.
But if the healthy person receives waters slightly more than three liters, then the trouble will not be too as water helps to bring toxins and excess of different salts out of organism, reduces concentration of the substances emitted with urine that reduces danger of formation of stones in kidneys and bladder.
Some specialists recommend to thicket to drink thawed snow, especially that who suffers from headaches, hypertension, obesity. Such water (possibly, because of structural features) possesses surprising properties: thanks to it hens give twice more eggs, cows sharply increase milk yield.
Apparently, thawed snow not only raises physical resources of organism, but also slows down aging processes, interfering with reduction of content of water in cages which usually happens at senile age. It is possible that it is one of secrets of longevity of mountaineers who constantly drink the water which is flowing down from the thawing glaciers and snow tops. To Muscovites or Kiev residents it is far to the Caucasian tops. But at their order home refrigerators where it is easy to receive enough ice which is easy for turning then into thawed snow.
Usually thirst increases during heat at plentiful sweating. If I am eager to satisfy with large amount of water, then sweating will only increase as water begins to be soaked up and come to blood, and then and to fabrics only in 10-15 minutes after acceptance. Much better several small drinks of water or rinsing of mouth and throat satisfy thirst. In general, it is necessary to rinse mouth repeatedly during the day to delete the slags which are constantly arriving from digestive and respiratory systems.
Enough nutritionists are skeptical about sugar, especially so far as concerns people of mature and advanced age. Sugar - the supplier of excessive amount of carbohydrates and calories, at its assimilation is spent many vitamins of group B necessary for organism. The organism reacts to receipt of large volumes of sugar emission in blood of the increased amount of insulin that as it is established, promotes development of obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer. Supervision have established dependence between the increased consumption of sugar and acceleration of sclerous process. And already absolutely badly sugar influences teeth. Even experimental rats have got caries when feeding by the food oversaturated by sugar. The healthy man of average years has enough a day 30-40 grams of sugar in pure form and in the form of various sweets (the weight of one piece of lump sugar - 6-7,5 grams, in one teaspoon - about 8-9 grams of sugar, in cake - to 35 grams, in glass of fruit water - 15 grams). But, unfortunately, we eat much more: in Russia each person consumes on average 110 grams of sugar a day. Now in the course the half-joking term "sugar drug addiction" - the more the person consumes sweets, the more he wants some sweet.
It is necessary to make effort over himself, to try to wean from sugar: the less is it, the less there is a wish to regale on various delicacies.
Influence of the table salt which is contained in food on blood pressure is known long ago though the mechanism of this influence still remains not clear. It is counted that white Americans on average consume about 10 grams of table salt a day, and they note about 10 percent of incidence of hypertension. Black Americans consume twice more salt and suffer from hypertension approximately twice more often. In day diet of Eskimos - 4 grams of salt, their hypertension is practically not observed. And here inhabitants of northern pponiya receive daily 26 grams of salt, there is subject to hypertension to 40 percent of the population.
Specialists claim that the natural products consumed by us contain amount of salt, sufficient for organism. Therefore many of them categorically against to add some salt to vegetables, salads, eggs. They consider that to usual saltcellar not the place on dining table. At preparation of hot dishes it is necessary to limit total quantity of salt.
Flour products are subject to unconditional restriction. The traditional Russian menu always provided considerable consumption of bread. It has been justified at extreme monotony of food and continuous threat of hunger. During many generations of the child accustomed any food is with bread to be full. Today it sounds as anachronism. The person of average years more than has enough to eat at dinner one, at most two small pieces of bread.
The candidate of medical sciences G. S. Shatalova whose views many specialists consider disputable in general believes bread separate dish and does not recommend to combine it with other products. She strictly adheres to the "mode of restrictions and loadings" preached by the academician N. M. Amosov (restrictions in comfort in general and in comfortable food in particular at optimum level of physical activities), has developed recipes of food which as she considers, promotes good assimilation of food and almost does not litter organism with slags.
Here some recipes from G. S. Shatalova's menu.
Sheet salad - 200 grams of salad, leaves of cabbage, celery, parsley, cilantro, 2-3 leaves of dandelion, green onions; to cut all this, to mix with gas station (to peel 3-4 tomatoes of thin skin, to pound, add 4 tablespoons of the cream or sunflower oil mixed with honey teaspoon).
Crude vegetables salad - beet and carrots to rub on large grater, to cut cucumber, two leaves of cabbage, leaves and roots of celery or parsley, green onions, fennel, cilantro. To mix everything, to fill with sour cream or sunflower oil.
Cucumber "sandwiches" - cucumber to cut lengthways or obliquely on several chunks. On slice to put:
1) cheese piece, on it - greens, garden radish to wrap leaf of cabbage or salad;
2) forcemeat from small cut greens, tomato and dense sour cream;
3) forcemeat from grated cheese with garlic, sour cream and juice of lemon;
4) forcemeat from chopped egg yolks with greens and sour cream.
Stewed vegetables - to cut in pan beet, carrots, turnip, vegetable marrow, roots of celery or parsley, to put without water and oil on weak uniform fire for about 30-40 minutes. In 10 minutes prior to readiness to add largely cut napiform bulb, in 5 minutes - several Zubkov of garlic. Having removed from fire, to strew with greens, to fill with sour cream or sunflower oil.
Buckwheat cereal - since evening to wet unground buckwheat, in the morning in the same water to boil 3-4 minutes. Having removed from fire, to fill with oil and greens.
Millet, porridge - to wet grain per day, in the same water to boil 3-5 minutes.
1) to lard garlic, to cover with sour cream, to prisolit and turn with greens in foil. To bake in oven of 30-40 minutes;
2) to soak 3-4 hours in dry wine, to weld on couple.
However to organize such food in family happens pretty troublesome. I will tell about how it was made by the small company of scientists of the city of Pushchino situated near Moscow - on - Oka movable by interest in problems of healthy lifestyle. The fruitful idea has come to their mind: to combine culinary efforts of adherents. The idea was carried out unexpectedly easily. Today have dinner at Ivanov, tomorrow - at Petrov, the day after tomorrow - at Sidorov. Nine adults and three children have distributed among themselves duties so that the family makes lunch only once in week. And to prepare on three or on twelve - in principle difference small.
As the destiny has brought together me with this company, within one winter week I was four times invited to different houses and I testify: everything is extremely tasty, nutritious, variously and healthily. My familiar pushchinets are experts on special literature, besides - biologists. In full accordance with Shelton's ideas they do not mix starchy food with proteinaceous products, with meat which is badly combined with it. During the lunchtime do not use animal fats, fish, bread, salt, sugar, fried. I cannot claim that such option of food the best, but here is how it looks.
On table grated carrots, grated boiled beet with garlic, green onions, largely cut fresh cabbage, cabbage apples salad. Sour cream, vegetable oil, instead of salt - ground sea cabbage. Hot dishes: baked potato, stewed vegetable stew, porridge. Porridge most often oat, millet, corn, pumpkin, buckwheat. In it - prunes, raisin, fig or dried apricots. Everything plentifully pours down oil or sour cream. In stewed vegetables (potatoes, cabbage, carrots, pumpkin) there is a lot of fresh and dried greens, siliculose haricot, pea concentrate. Options weight. In any case, I every time happened to eat absolutely different dishes.
As all live near from each other, and work too nearby, gather for lunch instantly. Practically everything is prepared in advance. The day before beet cooks, grain is presoaked, vegetables are cleaned. It is enough to light gas in oven that to arrival of guests there was on table smoking potato, couple of sudok with ragout, and under warm blanket the porridge pan aside pined. Everything is tasty extraordinary, and such lunch with friends - double pleasure.
We have counted economic effect: three kilograms of potatoes, two - carrots, two - cabbage, one - beets, one - onions, one - sour creams, one - grain, grams 400 - oils, greens, peas, haricot. In total no more than for 50-60 rubles on the person. In the flying and fall of opportunities it is much more, and the prices are much lower.
Probably, 10-12 people - optimum number for similar meals. The individual approach to cooking at advantage of high doses of products remains. Nothing goes to garbage can.
All have supper and have breakfast separately. Here on table there is meat, bread, milk, eggs, cheese. But after all try not to mix proteinaceous food (meat) from uglevodisty. Children receive the sweets. But they have need for candies and cakes much less, than in apples.