Recipe-book of people of the world
It is known that medieval skholasta were capable to conduct discussions on any subject, up to definition of number of devils on needle edge. But even they have been forced to recognize that there are things concerning which polemic is absolutely senseless. It is considered that in the environment of skholast the familiar expression was born: "It is not necessary to argue on tastes and colors". To this sensible judgment completely there corresponds the Russian equivalent: "Tastes differ".
Really, unless it is possible to prove that green color is better blue that the shish kebab is more tasty than some pork chop? Taste - concept very much relative, it is connected with many specific features and habits. And not only with individual. Exist also century national habits, traditions and to prove superiority of kitchen of some people over others at least ridiculously because no objective estimated criteria exist.
The recipe-book of people of the world is extraordinary various. Occasionally it just stuns with ingenuity and the imagination. In the east speak: "We eat everything, except the Moon and its reflection". "You live at the mountain - you eat what the mountain gives. You live by the sea - you eat what gives the sea". pponets eat with pleasure trepangs, marinated jellyfishes, cuttlefishes, sea cabbage, and also locust in the marinated and dried look. According to the Japanese scientists, exists several hundred species of locust suitable in food.
In pponiya in the thirties of the 20th century the student of the Tokyo university showed to the numerous audience the unique opportunities: he ate to 1500 species of lizards, toads, rats, mice, snakes and even very poisonous plants. It appears, the father urged the young man to find new power supplies for the population in the will, and the young man has so got used to so unusual menu that could not be content with traditional food any more.
Natives of Australia eat 200 species of plants, herbs, korenyev and about 100 species of mollusks, and as delicacy prepare biscuits from midges, roast from snakes, frogs, caterpillars, baby birds. And here the Mexican Indians provide many centuries themselves with animal protein in the peculiar way: they grow up millions of larvae of flies, then from them prepare dry preparations (flour) and during the winter period enrich the diet. According to scientists, such powders on protein content do not concede to meat of cattle. In some regions of Mexico the population collects small bugs and eats them with honey in live look. And confuses nobody that bugs creep on beard, to lips - they are quietly pinched.
The French who have presented to the world hundreds of refined dishes eat with pleasure oysters, and we when mentioning of it for some reason screw up the face though it is unclear, than the oyster is worse than crab to whom we treat with sympathy. Luxurious Chinese restaurants serve fried bloodsuckers in hot fan, and the dish costs much! Whether it is possible to imagine it at us at restaurants?
Our far ancestors ate all that the wild nature gave them. Who knows, maybe, this pantophagy also has helped them to survive. The civilized person has limited himself much to more narrow range of products, the deprived besides useful qualities long processing in kitchen.
The relation to food forms since the childhood. Parents try to prepare first of all what him is pleasant and as it seems to them, has to recover to the child. Raising children, parents impart to them and the tastes. When the child is small when he is deprived of the choice or opportunity to protest, he quickly enough gets used to with what he is fed. So, from the cradle he is accustomed to sweet, and soon already itself begins to demand more and more. But sugar - product flavoring, and abundance its organism does not demand at all. So sweetening of children's milk mixes is scientifically not proved.
In one child care facility scientists have made experiment. To group of children at the age of 3-5 years of distance of chocolates it is so much how many they will wish. Also it has turned out that the adult to participate in such competition it is useless. Any of them could not eat just like that in hour of half a kilo of candies, children have made it with enviable ease.
All that it is given, the child tries to eat without bread. But it works well infrequently. Parents literally force children there are sandwiches, rolls, etc. The three-year-old girl plaintively asks: "Why adults force us to eat the most tasty with bread?" Children eat slowly: they attentively consider all that they give them, and absorb food seriously, as if thoughtfully. And it irritates parents, they hurry them that too goes by no means it is not good.
Butter concentrates taste and aroma tens times stronger, than genuine milk. When we smear butter layer on piece of bread, we think not of advantage but only about taste. With oil give salty products: herring, smoked fish and even granular caviar though it contains up to 30 percent of own "hidden" fats.
pyets - product of high biological value. Thermal treatment perniciously acts on them: valuable amino acids (cystine, cysteine, methionine) collapse, at the same time the gaseous substances harmful to organism are formed, - hydrogen sulfide, phosphorous hydrogen. As often eggs are cooked, cleared and again subjected to heating in pies (forcemeats). If there are eggs, then only soft-boiled or sack (cooking no more than 3-5 minutes). But the eggs hard-boiled are tasty? Yes. Scientists have put experiment: two groups of mice fed with the eggs hard-boiled and soft-boiled. The first group of mice has soon died, but when animals were given choice opportunity, all of them have equally given preference to the eggs hard-boiled. Conclusion: the person and even animals can lose instinct of the choice of healthy food, and taste often brings.
Fat cottage cheese is more tasty fat-free, but also is three times more caloric. Skim cheese is much more useful to elderly and sick people, but, alas, it does not bring popularity to it.
Who did not try fermented baked milk - such viscous, with pleasant taste and aroma of baked milk. Let's remind, however, that at long heating the structure of milk is broken and the melanoidins, substances which are difficult acquired by organism collect. At languor practically the fifth part of milk is destroyed and sharply its biological value decreases.
Favourite types of ice cream - ice cream and eskimo: they, of course, are more tasty than milk and fruit grades. In portion of ice cream as much calories how many in rye bread (200 kcal), and we eat it as dessert, that is as addition to usual diet. Fruit and milk grades are not so caloric, so, and are more useful.
The mankind has got acquainted with conservation several millennia ago. Drying, pickles, jerking were known still to ancient Greeks. Mass production of the sterilized and pasteurized canned food has begun in the 19th century. What do they attract with? First of all it is convenient to store them and dishes from them prepare quickly. From the food point of view all looks more difficult. As it was already told, any thermal treatment of vegetables, fruit, meat, fish, dairy products reduces their value. And when canned food replaces fresh products, the organism suffers from it. Certainly, it is not about isolated cases (on the way, in campaign) when canned food can help out, and about their systematic use.
Meat and meat products enjoy wide popularity at the population, but the hobby for them not so is harmless. In the Middle Ages in the east of criminals executed in very peculiar way: they were fed with boiled meat, and in 28 days they perished from organism intoxication. It is indicative that on vegetable diet it is possible to live for months. At full hunger (consuming only water) the organism maintains 40-50 days. But meat - the product flavoring and therefore is attractive. Experiment was put: gorillas (natural herbivorous) were fed with meat. Animals in the first days played to them, but then got used and began to refuse natural vegetable food. As a result in their organism (in large intestine) the putrefactive microflora with formation of harmful gaseous substances - indole, skatole, phenol collected.
Already in antique times knew that surplus of meat in diet leads to gout, and often replaced it with fish and seafood. Olives, barley flat cakes, dry wine, but not meat because of which it was difficult to pass tens of versts in campaign entered ration of the Roman legionaries. On the contrary, gladiators surely received meat - was considered that it increases their rage in deadly fights on arene.
By modern science it is proved: surplus of meat products in diet leads to shift of acid-base balance in organism in the acid party, that is simply to organism poisoning.
What conclusion? Meat needs to be able to be eaten. First, to normalize it. Secondly, it is obligatory to add vegetables, herbs, korenye to meat products. As it was already told, modern long-livers quite so arrive. Without knowing about any science, they nevertheless eat competently and rationally. In Ancient Rome the gravestone monument to the long-liver who has lived 112 years with laconic text has been established: "He ate and drank moderately". And the Russian proverb says: "You eat simply - you will live years to hundred".
Effective example of residents of Abkhazia where it is more long-livers, than in other republics. At many of them fine appetite. They eat, as a rule, three times a day. The menu consists of natural products, but is various - in is mute six types of products are provided: vegetables, fruit, corn, egg, meat, dairy products. Of corn do porridge, of milk - yogurt (acid milk). And both eat not less than two-three times a day.
Butter is used not more often than two-three weekly, but by no more than 10-15 grams a day. Practically do without pure sugar (it is replaced with honey). Meat and meat products appear on table one-two times a week and not in fried, and in boiled look. The legend that Abkhazians eat every day shish kebabs has not found any confirmation. But the commission of gerontologists conducting examination was convinced of firmness of national Abkhazian tradition. Concerning hot spices and sauces (adjika) it has become clear that bitter substances of pepper (capsaicines) exert positive impact on heart, cause decrease in concentration of the general lipids and cholesterol in liver, stimulate motility of stomach.
Scientists have come to conclusion that Abkhazians receive necessary amount of animal protein generally from dairy products, but not from meat as was considered earlier. As for fats, in their diet fats vegetable (them the corn gives), but not animals prevail. Special addiction is fed by them for natural products without which any meal practically does not do. It both vegetables, and herbs, and korenye, and fruit, and all is fresher, not undergone thermal treatment. Such menu provides organism with enough "rough fibers" (celluloses, pectinaceous substances, protopectin - intestines cleaners) and vitamins (among them vitamins C and E, preventing oxidation of fats are especially important).
And one more characteristic detail: among long-livers have not found the people having obesity, on the contrary, all of them are lean, mobile and to extreme old age keep working capacity. Idlers and gluttons long-livers do not become - their way of life revenges for itself.