Scientific and technical creativity
In modern conditions creation of new medicines, including vegetable, is the same process of scientific and technical creativity as the invention of new cars, devices, mechanisms, materials. Besides the science considers each medicine as chemical system with the structure, properties and the production technology. Long ago handicraft methods of release of active ingredients have consigned to the past. Today such problems are solved by collective work of scientists, the close union of biological and chemical sciences.
the organization of works at All-Union research institute of herbs can be prky example. Distinctive feature of its activity — complexity of researches. Here botanists, selectors, agronomists, chemists, physiologists, pharmacologists, farmakognosta, doctors, technologists and engineers work. Also the circle of problems on which scientists work is extensive. Identification of new species of the curative plants unknown earlier or close to from what valuable connections have been already received; resursovedeniye, investigation and multiplication of stocks of medicinal raw materials; introduction of new plants to culture; application of the advanced agrotechnology and agrochemistry on plantations of medicinal and vitamin plants, mechanization of their cultivation, selection, genetics and seed farming, delay of new grades with the increased content of biologically active agents and vitamins, improvement of hereditary properties of types, improvement of quality, standardization and decrease in cost value of medicinal raw materials, chemical, pharmacological, toxicological and chemotherapeutic assessment of the revealed biologically active agents, creation on their basis of preparations for treatment and prevention of different diseases, development of the production technology of drugs and release of first production lots; studying of experience of traditional medicine, its creative use by search of plants and in development of preparations; development of international relations in the field of studying of herbs and creation on their basis of remedies, exchange of seed material with foreign scientific institutions — here not the full list of problems and tasks on which work at institute.
Being in system of the Ministry of the medical industry, the institute has pronounced research and production profile. Except number of special laboratories: botanical, crop, chemical, pharmacological, medicobiological, economic researches, pharmacognosies, important links are botanical garden of the herbs, 9 zone experimental stations with experimental bases located in different geographical zones of the country, the experimental plant. Within the walls of this unique scientific complex about 90 phytopreparations are created, nearly a half of them is developed for the last 20 years.
However even such large research establishment is not the only place in the country where works on studying and use of herbs are carried out. Many other scientific organizations, including botanical gardens, universities, pharmaceutical institutes, research establishments of biological, chemical profile and others participate in this big and noble cause. Now, perhaps, there is no such republic, edge or area where work with herbs for the purpose of receiving new effective preparations for treatment of diseases in a varying degree would not be conducted. The wide experience is saved up in scientific institutions of Siberia and the Far East. In Tomsk, Irkutsk, Omsk, Barnaul, Novosibirsk, Vladivostok and other cities serious work on studying of herbs is conducted. In 1947 number of scientists — V. V. Reverdato, N. V. Vershinin, D.D. pblok awards of the USSR for the big work "New Herbs of Siberia, Their Medical Preparations and Application" have been conferred State.
In a number of scientific institutions of the Russian Federation, and also Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia and other federal republics research works on herbs are developed.
It is not necessary to be surprised to the fact that so many scientific forces are engaged in the country with their studying. The matter is that so far in our medicine no more than 200 types find practical application that makes about one percent of the higher plants of the USSR. In all world there are 500 thousand plants. It is the inexhaustible storeroom of vegetable remedies. The traditional medicine of the past knowing over 12 thousand curative herbs has not settled and could not settle all curative properties of wildlife. Quite often it happens that active ingredients of new therapeutic value are found in long ago known types.
More than ever earlier, value of coordination of scientific works, increase of efficiency of researches has increased. Real steps and in this direction are taken that will allow to use reserves more successfully. Now no more than 7 classes of biologically active agents find practical application, 43 types of natural connections are known.
The Soviet pharmaceutical industry and pharmacy chain which sells annually large number of the dried-up packed-up herbs consumes about 40 thousand tons of raw materials now. In recent years preparations have considerably increased, but do not satisfy all requirements yet. It is often possible to hear complaints that it is difficult to get these or those herbs in drugstores. Fast increase in need for medicinal raw materials both at us and in the world market is observed.
Evidence-based calculations show that for 1976 — 1980 it is necessary to increase production of medicinal raw materials by 2 — 2,7 times and to bring to 66 — 84 thousand tons. It is quite clear that the share of the cultivated medicinal raw materials considerably will increase. Further deep scientific search of sources of Receiving phytopreparations for treatment and prevention of diseases continues. At natural connections the advantages. On their basis it is possible to develop original remedies of high activity. Quite often they serve as reference point for synthesizing of similar or even more effective preparations.
At the same time it is only possible to envy that profitability, stability, continuity and automaticity of "production" processes which occur in cage. It is really unique "live" microfactory with it is insignificant small expenses of energy.
Considerable advantage is also the fact that drugs of plant origin often work more softly, than synthetic, they are taken from plant cells at which much in common with the processes happening in cages of human body.
Now scientists have the most modern laboratory equipment for allocation from plants of physiologically active agents, their comprehensive chemical and medicobiological study, creation of various phytopreparations, ways of their receiving and the progressive production technology. Scientific bases of search of new herbs and identification of resources of medicinal raw materials are developed. Successfully medicinal plant growing, works on introduction of valuable wild-growing types, selection and seed farming, implementation of the advanced methods of cultivation on the basis of mechanization develop. Careful farmakognostichesky studying of medicinal raw materials, its standardization are provided, complex economic researches on the main directions of studying and use of herbs are conducted.
Thus, there is strong base for achievement all of new and new practical results in the field of development of phytopreparations for treatment and prevention of different diseases.
Therefore it is interesting to track as possibilities of wildlife for receiving the effective medicines necessary for successful fight against different diseases are used.
And on this site of the Soviet science solves efficiency and quality of scientific researches, the fullest use of all opportunities of the accelerated rates of scientific and technical progress. In the report of the Central Committee of CPSU L.I. Brezhnev spoke to the XXV congress: "It is necessary to make still a lot of things that achievements of science were quickly realized not only in separate — let the most brilliant — experiments and exhibition samples, but also in thousands and thousands of new types of products, beginning from unique cars and finishing everything that is connected with improvement of working conditions and life of people. Practically implementation of new scientific ideas is not less important task, than their development today".
Developing these thoughts in the "Main directions of development of national economy of the USSR for 1976 — 1980" accepted by the XXV congress of CPSU actual problems of all industries of the Soviet science are accurately formulated. In particular, need of increase of efficiency and quality of scientific researches, further improvement of forms of communication of science with production is emphasized. In the field of biology it is important to strengthen the researches directed to the accelerated solution of the major medicobiological problems of fight against cardiovascular, oncological, endocrine, viral and occupational diseases, and also diseases of nervous system. It is necessary how it is specified in this fundamental document XXV of congress of CPSU, to create new effective medicines, to provide fuller satisfaction of requirements of the population in them, to considerably increase production of hormonal preparations and to perform other important works.