Longevity and social sphere
History of mankind knows many cases of long life of certain people. Let's tell, in the English literature data on certain Foma Karna who, it agrees official to entries in the church book have remained, was born in 1588 and has died later 207 flyings, having happily endured 12 kings.
Very extensive information about long-livers of the different countries and different times contains in the well-known book of the Russian scientist-biologist I.I. Mechnikov "Etudes of optimism". The solid list of long-livers is provided also in the Guinness Book of Records. But to be fair we will note: longer, than to above-mentioned Karna, it was not succeeded to live to anybody.
History left us names of long-livers from the most remote times. It is known, for example, that the Ancient Greek philosopher Platon lived more than 80 years. "The father of medicine" Hippocrates has died in 92 years. At the same time all life he actively worked. Certainly, it would be possible to find similar examples and at the beginning of new era, and in the period of the Middle Ages. However, however many we called names, all this isolated cases. People of that time lived in the weight very little - till 18-23 years.
The reasons of so short average life lie on surface. Ancient were defenseless before forces of nature, before the infections destroying the whole people. They did not know ways of rescue from serious wounds. Many at children's age perished for hunger and cold.
The French anthropologist Valois inspected 20 remains of Neanderthal men and has established that eleven of them have died till 21 year. Only one managed to live till 40 flyings.
These inspections of remains of kromanyonets who lived to us from 20 to 40 thousand years ago are not less interesting. Every third of them lived only till 21 year, every eighth - till 41 year. Only one of hundred managed to live 50 years.
Even people who have got appearance of the person it is not enough what differing from modern, living during transition period from stone to bronze age, in 21 years lost every fourth from the ranks. By 21 year from all been born there was a little more than a third.
However, is it necessary to address the Neolithic era and bronze? Quite recently the hero of one of A.P. Chekhov's plays - doctor Astrov in 50 years considered himself as already elderly person. The first population census which is carried out in Russia at the end of the last century has shown that average life expectancy at that time made only 32 years. Isn't that so, as the difference in this respect at people of the end XIX and their ancestors of the Stone Age - 21 years and 32 years is insignificant.
Only progress of civilization, especially in the 20th century, social and economic transformations, development of medical science have gradually led to increase in average life expectancy of the person.
Statistical account of the movement of the population in the developed countries is kept relatively recently - no more than 230 years. For this period of time it is possible to establish authentically what was average life expectancy in this or that country. So, Sweden became one of the first countries where since 1755 accounting of birth rate and mortality of the population has begun. Data of accounting allow to establish that average life expectancy in this country made only 34 years during this period. Increase it happened extremely slowly. 90 years later it has increased only for 7 years. For the next 80 years, that is by the beginning of the 20th years of the 20th century, for 16, having reached 57 years. By the beginning of the 80th years average life expectancy in Sweden has exceeded 70 years! Over the last 50 years it has increased for 14 years. Nowadays Sweden - the champion on average life expectancy (75 years) among the countries of Europe.
Speak about average life expectancy much, write much, nevertheless quite often at the same time the confusion of concepts is observed.
Obviously, there is sense to remind that this term means the certain statistics estimated on difficult formulas using laws of probability theory. Data on the number of each of age groups of the population and on the actual number of the dead in the same groups form basis for calculation. Then certain mathematical model which allows to determine required statistical size is designed. The characteristic of average life expectancy becomes, thus, quite objective.
Gradual growth of average life expectancy is characteristic of the vast majority of the countries of the world today. But figures are not identical here at all. So, by the end of the 70th years average life expectancy of the population of the countries of North Africa made 45,5 years, Western - 38,2, Central - 36,6, East - 39,4, Southern - 49,8 years.
There was growth of average life expectancy in the countries of Asia and Latin America. By the beginning of the 80th years it reached limit about 50 years here though in such countries as Thailand and Sri Lanka, has exceeded even boundary of 60 years.
Increase in average life expectancy in the countries of the world in the last decades is caused by achievements of medicine, growth of welfare of the population. And the more significantly here progress, the is higher indicators of average life expectancy. For example, only from 1950 for 1960 average life expectancy in Romania has increased for 2,5 years, in Yugoslavia - on 5 flyings, in Hungary and in Czechoslovakia - on 7, in Poland - on 8, in Bulgaria - on 19 flyings. In recent years average life expectancy in Bulgaria has reached 71 years.
The bright example of dependence of growth rates of average life expectancy on achievements in the social sphere was taught to the world by our country.
In population census of 1896-1897 average life expectancy in imperial Russia made 32 years. But already less than in 10 years after the Great October socialist revolution it has increased for 12 years and in 1926-1927 made 44 years. Population census of 1939 has brightly confirmed further progress in improvement of medical care of the population, social conditions therefore average life expectancy of the person has increased for 3 years and has reached 47 years. By the end of the 60th years it has already reached 70 years and in comparison with the pre-revolutionary period has increased for 38 years!