In medical foods widely use vegetables. The value of vegetables is that they provide diet with vitamins, mainly vitamin C, P and carotene, and also mineral elements and cellulose.
Comprehensibility of vegetables depends on way of their preparation. Vegetables boiled and especially wiped are acquired better than crude.
Preprocessing of vegetables consists of sorting, sink, machine cleaning, manual dochistka, cutting. Some vegetables (cabbage, greens) clear only manually.
Potatoes contain significant amount of starch - from 11% in young tuber to 20, % in mature, and 1,7% of proteins. In view of the fact that potatoes are usually used in large number, it is important source of vitamin C.
By spring in potatoes toxic agent - solanine collects. Therefore at this time it is necessary to peel carefully potatoes of eyes, to eat welded only in the cleared look, not to use strongly sprouted potatoes in food.
Potatoes and root crops clean in potato peelers then manually delete eyes and the remains of thin skin. Waste after all types of cleaning makes 25-40%. The peeled potatoes in order to avoid darkening are stored in water. Potatoes need to be cleaned in process of implementation.
Vegetables cut manually or on vegetable cutters. The form of cutting of vegetables has to correspond to form of other products which are part of dish. For example, at production of soups with vermicelli vegetables cut straws, with rice or pearl barley - cubes.
Root crops contain carbohydrates. Beet (11,5%) and carrots (9,7%) are richest with them. In them there are also dyes (in beet - anthocyans, in carrots - carotene) giving to finished products attractive look.
Parsley, celery, parsnip are rich with aromatic essential oils. They are used for preparation of soups and sauces, and greens support them significant amount of vitamin C. The garden radish, radish, horse-radish have sharp taste and stimulate appetite.
The cabbage is rich with vitamin C; the white cabbage contains 30 its mg, and in cabbage stump of 71 mg; in red cabbage of 50 mg, in cauliflower of 70 mg. The white cabbage contains also vitamin K.
When processing cabbage delete upper leaves, cut off outside part of cabbage stump and wash out. In case of detection of worms, it is immersed in salty water, at the same time worms emerge.
Onions contain sugar, vitamins, aromatic essential oils and bactericidal substances - phytoncides. When cleaning onions remove upper scales. At green onions delete the turned yellow and spoiled stalks, cut off roots and well wash out; greens are touched, deleting the spoiled and faded leaves, and carefully wash out.
Pumpkin, vegetable marrows, eggplants after washing are peeled of thin skin, cut off from them fruit stem, seeds delete.
Sauerkraut is wrung out from brine, very acid washed out cold water. Large cucumbers clear of skin.
Dried vegetables apply in the absence of fresh vegetables. Before cooking they need to be touched, washed out and filled in with cold water for swelling on 1-3 h, then to cook in the same water.
Fresh-frozen vegetables, without defreezing, put in the boiling water and cook 10-15 minutes.
For the food purposes waste from potatoes, beets, cabbage, vegetable marrows and aromatic root crops can be used. From waste of potatoes it is possible to receive starch. The young tops of vegetable of beet and green leaves of cabbage after careful cleaning and washing can be used for preparation of beetroot soup and borsch.
Cabbage cabbage stumps in view of high content of vitamin C in them smooth out, slice straws and use for borsches, Russian cabbage soup, salads and other dishes. Leaves of cabbage, cabbage stump, stalks of fennel and parsley, interior of vegetable marrows use for preparation of vegetable broths which are component of lenten soups. Cleanings of aromatic root crops use for aromatization of broths. Beet cleanings can be used for coloring of borsch.
From vegetables prepare independent dishes and garnishes for meat and fish dishes.
Cooking of vegetables
When cooking vegetables (except beet and green peas) put in the boiling added some salt water (10 g of salt on 1 l of water) and cook at weak boiling. The crude vegetables can be put in cold water. Beet and green peas are cooked in unsalted water as salt extends process of razvarivaniye.
When cooking vegetables in water significant amount of mineral elements and part of vitamins pass into water. Therefore vegetable broths should be used for preparation of soups and sauces. At steam boiling from vegetables less nutrients are extracted.
Potatoes are cooked in the cleared and crude look. The prepared peeled potatoes are put in the hot added some salt water and cooked at weak boiling under the closed cover. Shortly before readiness water is merged, and potatoes are dried under the closed cover at weak heating, at the same time potatoes reach readiness.
Potatoes are released as garnish or as independent dish with butter, sour cream or sauces.
For preparation of mashed potatoes the cooked potatoes in hot state are wiped by protirochny car, then add hot milk and butter and well kneaded or shaken up in the car.
The cabbage boiled is prepared from white, color and Brussels sprout. Remove upper leaves from head of cabbage of white cabbage, cut head of cabbage on four parts and boil in the added some salt water. After bringing to readiness cut off cabbage stump, give the corresponding form and give with butter or sauces: sukharny, milk, Dutch. The cauliflower after preprocessing is cooked in the added some salt water at strong boiling, otherwise it will darken, then heating is reduced and brought to readiness. After cooking the cabbage is slightly dried and given with butter or sauces.
Pripuskaniye of vegetables
Pripuskat vegetables in own juice or with addition of water, milk and broth. The received broth is used together with vegetables therefore losses of nutrients at pripuskaniye minimum, they are reduced to partial destruction of vitamins and enzymes. Pumpkin, vegetable marrows, tomatoes are pripuskat in own juice as in them there is a lot of moisture, and beet, cabbage, carrots - with liquid addition (15-20% to the weight of vegetables). During pripuskaniye add part of the butter put according to the layout. Pripuskaniye duration to readiness of root crops and cabbage makes 25-30 minutes, pumpkin and vegetable marrows of 15-20 minutes, spinach of 10-12 minutes. Stewed vegetables fill with oil or milk sauce.
Stewed vegetables prepare most often from cabbage fresh and fermented, from potatoes, carrots and from mix of vegetables. Add meat products to the stewed vegetables used as independent dish.
For preparation of stewed dishes vegetables, except cabbage and tomatoes, fry previously (potatoes, vegetable marrows, pumpkin), brown (onions, korenye) and cook (beet, green peas). At mass production of stewed potatoes potatoes are not fried, and cooked to semi-readiness, broth is merged, add red sauce and extinguished, at the end of suppression put the browned onions and spices.
For preparation of stewed cabbage the fresh cabbage is sliced, add a little broth, fat and extinguished. In 20 min. until the end of suppression put the browned tomato mashed potatoes, onions, carrots and in the last turn - vinegar, bay leaf and pepper (peas). Then enter salt, sugar, the browned flour divorced broth and bring to boiling. If sauerkraut very acid, then before suppression it is cooked to semi-readiness, liquid is merged and continues to be extinguished as fresh cabbage.
Frying of vegetables
Fry vegetables crude or after preliminary thermal treatment. Destruction of vitamin C when frying is much less, than during the cooking and suppression. Potatoes cut by pieces of different form and size are fried with small amount of fat. The vegetable marrows, pumpkin, eggplants sliced are fried with small amount of fat, breaded in flour. Ready vegetables water with the kindled butter, sour cream or smetanny sauce.
From potatoes cook cutlets, zrazas, croquets. The cooked potatoes are wiped hot by protirochny car, weight is cooled to 60 °, add crude eggs and well kneaded. Undress in the form of cutlets, croquet (balls) and zrazas. For zrazas cook forcemeat from meat, carrots, the browned onions, chopped eggs, the chopped boiled mushrooms. Cutlets and zrazas bread in flour or crackers, and also fry also without breading.
From cabbage cook cutlets, schnitzels, puddings. The fresh cabbage is sliced straws, put in stewpan or copper, add milk and extinguished to semi-readiness. Semolina is added in the raw or it can be boiled thoroughly with cabbage within 10 minutes. Add crude eggs, sugar (if it is specified in the layout) to the received weight, well knead and form cutlets. Depending on diet of cutlet do without breading or bread in crackers and fry or bake.
From carrots prepare cutlets and zrazas. Carrots are sliced straws, pripuskat in milk to readiness, add semolina in the raw or boil it with carrots. Enter crude eggs, sugar into the received weight, well knead and form in the form of cutlets. Fry with breading or without it. Zrazas from carrots prepare the same as cutlets, stuff them with prunes, apples, dried apricots. On diet of the 5th cutlet and zraza bake.
Cutlets can be made also from mix of vegetables, for example from carrots and cabbage, from cabbage, carrots and turnip.
Roasting of vegetables
The baked vegetables can be divided into three main groups:
- baked puddings;
- not stuffed;
Baked puddings are cooked from potatoes, cabbage, carrots or from mix of vegetables. Preparation of vegetable weight for baked pudding same, as for fried products (cutlets, zrazas). Vegetable baked puddings are cooked also stuffed. As forcemeat use: meat for potato and cabbage baked puddings, fruit - for carrot.
Not stuffed vegetables are baked in sauce smetanny or milk average density or in sour cream. In smetanny sauce bake potatoes, vegetable marrows, cauliflower. In milk sauce bake cabbage color and white, vegetable marrows. The cauliflower is baked also with sukharny sauce. Before roasting vegetables are boiled or fried, then filled in with sauce, sprinkled oil, sometimes strewed with grated cheese and baked in oven.
Stuff vegetable marrows, eggplants, pepper, tomatoes, turnip, beet, cabbage (stuffed cabbage).
Vegetable marrows clear of skin, cut for the portions, i.e. pieces 4-5 cm thick, delete seeds and boil in salty water to semi-readiness. Then fill with forcemeat (rice and carrots or meat with rice), fill in with sauce béchamel or smetanny with tomato and bake in oven. Butter is put in forcemeat and partially in sauce with which fill in vegetable marrows.
Tomatoes choose average size. Cut off part with fruit stem, take out core, fill with forcemeat, strew with cheese, sprinkle oil and bake. After that fill in with sauce smetanny or smetanny with tomato. Forcemeat for tomatoes is prepared from the browned onions, chopped eggs, ground crackers, and also parsley greens. It is possible to stuff tomatoes with mincemeat, having added to it friable rice and the browned onions.
Eggplants as well as tomatoes, stuff crude. Eggplants cut in half or on pieces of cylindrical form, delete seeds, lower for 5 minutes in the boiling added some salt water and fill with vegetable or mushroom forcemeat. Then stack on the baking sheet oiled fill in with sour cream and bake in oven.
Pepper is washed out, cut out fruit stem and take out it together with seeds. Pepper is put in the boiling added some salt water for 2-3 minutes when water flows down, filled with forcemeat (from meat, rice and vegetables). Pepper is stacked in pan in one - two rows, filled in with broth, add oil and tomato and extinguished under cover of 30-40 minutes.
Stuffed cabbage prepares with vegetable or mincemeat. The head of cabbage after cutting cabbage stump is boiled in the added some salt water to semi-readiness, then sorted on separate leaves and beat off thickenings wooden pestle. In leaves wrap forcemeat, giving to stuffed cabbage oblong shape. Stuffed cabbage stacks on the baking sheet oiled fries, fills in with sauce and bakes in oven.
Beet for farshirovaniye is taken the average sizes. It is cooked to readiness, cleared, cut out core, then filled with forcemeat (rice with apples). The beet filled with forcemeat is baked in oven within 15-20 minutes, filled in with béchamel or sour cream and put for several minutes in oven.
The steam wiped vegetables dishes
The steam wiped dishes (souffle) are prepared from carrots, potatoes, vegetable marrows, cauliflower and other vegetables or from their mix.
The cooked or stewed vegetables wipe by protirochny car. Enter semolina, sugar (if it is put according to the layout) into the wiped vegetables, well stir butter, egg yolk, weight and enter the egg white beaten in foam. After careful promeshivaniye weight is spread on the baking sheet oiled, the surface is leveled and prepared on couple. The preparation time makes 30-40 minutes. The ready souffle is greased from above with butter that the crust was not formed.
Vegetable purees give as independent dish and as garnish.
For carrot puree the carrots chopped by straws are stewed with small amount of milk to full readiness. Then wipe by protirochny car, fill with béchamel, butter, sugar and warm up on food warmer. Add the apples made in the form of mashed potatoes to the carrot puree used as independent dish.
For preparation of beet mashed potatoes beet is cooked in peel to readiness, cleared, sliced straws and wiped via the protirochny machine. The wiped beet is filled with butter, citric acid, sugar, béchamel and given with sour cream. Beet mashed potatoes can be made with prunes for what add previously welded and wiped prunes to ready mashed potatoes.
Mashed potatoes also prepare from vegetable marrows, cauliflower, pumpkin or from mix of vegetables.