Time and biorhythms in our life
Time - one of matter existence forms. His daily perception seems natural, not demanding thoughts.
At the same time, speaking to words of the academician A.E. Fersman, "it is difficult to provide simpler and at the same time more difficult concept, than time...".
Time for us is connected with any events or the phenomena.
Development of the nature and society, all phenomena of world around, our actions and acts, existence and functioning of our organism - everything proceeds in time.
Lucretius in the poem "About the Nature of Things" wrote:
Conduct to feeling that in centuries it was made
What occurs now and that vosposledut later.
And inevitably to recognize what can be felt by nobody
Time in itself out of motion of bodies and rest.
In development of society idea of time, the attitude towards him changed. The perception of time in the past considerably differed from modern. Today we measure time by thousand fractions of a second, and medieval hours had only hour hand on the dial, minute has appeared in the middle of the 19th century, and second still Pushkin's contemporaries did not know.
Time problem always occupied minds of people: in scientific treatises, in psychological and physiological researches, philosophical works scientists discuss questions of adaptation of living beings to the changing environment conditions (including social) in connection with temporary characteristics.
In any phenomenon of the nature surrounding us we observe strict rhythm, repeatability of processes through certain periods: celestial motion, change of seasons, day and night, inflow and otliva.
Now the daily and annual course of the mode of the main meteoelements is well tracked and studied: pressure, temperatures, humidity of air, electromagnetic oscillations, absolute amount of oxygen, space radiation. So, atmospheric pressure at steady weather within a day fluctuates in insignificant limits, the maximum indicators are noted at 10 and 22 hours, minimum - at 4 and 16 hours. At rare change of weather atmospheric pressure can fluctuate from 10 to 50 mm of mercury column. In middle latitudes in summer months it is slightly lower, than in the winter. Amplitude of annual fluctuations of pressure of air can make 20-40 mm.
Daily fluctuations of air temperature are expressed stronger over the land, especially in mountains, than over surface of the water. The maximum indicators of temperature are noted at 13-16 o'clock, minimum - during the period preceding sunrise, 4-6 o'clock in the morning.
Rhythms of the nature have left marks on all live on Earth. In the course of evolution and adaptation of organism to environment there was synchronization of activity of separate functional systems and power dynamics of exchange processes of live organisms with geophysical rhythms.
"Life of separate organism - only the Universe life fragment", - Claude Bernard, an A.L wrote. Chizhevsky has so specified this thought: "... both the person and microbe - beings not only social, but also space, connected by all the biology, all molecules, all particles of bodies with space, with its beams, flows and fields..."
In 1729 the French astronomer de Meran has found out that at the plants which are contained in the dark the same daily frequency of the movement of leaves, as on light remained. Thanks to this supervision existence at live organisms of internal biological rhythms has been established. Studying of this phenomenon within the next 200 years has shown its universality, many interesting data have been saved up and need of creation of new science - bioritmologiya has ripened.
In the early thirties the Soviet scientist V. I. Vernadsky has formulated the concept "biological time" which he called time connected with the vital phenomena, own time of organism. As a result of external influences, the scientist considers, time of evolution, life of sort, look, individual, their development was formulated.
Orderliness of vital processes in organisms is expressed in the form of biological rhythms. There is definition that time is fabric of which "life is made".
Biological rhythms are found in all live organisms: at one-celled and multicellular, at plants and bacteria. Rhythm of functions is observed from the birth to death of organism. Biological rhythms are hereditary because in the course of evolution only those organisms which functions proceeded rhythmically according to fluctuations of external environment survived.
According to the doctrine of the academician V. I. Vernadsky, cyclic fluctuation of physiological processes from the point of view of power most reasonablly, economically and corresponds to the principle of the optimum organization.
Throughout the millennia at the person the corresponding biological rhythms in activity of different functional systems of organism were also developed.
Our organism not only develops and changes during the long temporary periods from infancy till old age, he experiences certain changes and within a day, years, other periods, and these changes have rhythmic character and the science bioritmologiya is engaged in their studying.
The external conditions regulating duration of cycles are called synchronizers or sensors of time.
The biological rhythms matching geophysical are called ecological or adaptive.
Change of day and night, the seasonal phenomena, fluctuations of temperature, humidity, air pressure belong to external synchronizers.
Different bodies and processes of human body have the specific synchronization with factors of external environment. However, despite strict identity of amplitudes of fluctuations, for example, of heart beat or breath, all bodies and systems have also general patterns. So, during daylight hours intensity of psychophysiological functions of the person the highest, and at night - minimum. Activity of functions changes in dependence and on season of year as fluctuations of temperature, humidity, pressure, level of activity of the sun and space radiation, fluctuation of magnetic electric fields are essential to organism. Biological rhythms as if "expect" this influence, and successful preparation for it is fixed in genetic memory of the person.
It agrees to the "Circadian system of the person" made by professor F. Halberg the following communication of the maximum indicators of our organism with time of day is noted: body weight - at 18-19 o'clock, temperature - at 16 - 18 o'clock, pulse - at 15-16 o'clock, the frequency of breath is 13-15 hours, blood pressure - at 15-18 o'clock. Fluctuations on seasons of year are observed.
Daily rhythms of life activity were studied in Ancient Rome, Ancient Greece and Ancient China at treatment of diseases. For example, in Ancient China "hours of vital force" and "hours of disease" of this or that body at purpose of these or those medicines were considered, especially carefully such "schedule" has been developed for acupuncture.