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Carbonated soft drinks, natural fruit and berry and fruit juice, drinks of stake and mineral waters belong to soft drinks.
Carbonated soft drinks
Carbonated drinks are cooked with use of high-quality drinking water, sugar, fruit and berry fruit drinks, extracts and juice, food organic acids (lemon, tartaric, milk), food dyes and food essences.
Water for preparation of soft drinks has to meet all requirements imposed to drinking water. In addition to cleaning at city water treatment stations, at plant where drinks are produced, water is subjected to additional filtering via special filters.
In production of carbonated drinks important element is their gassing. Saturation by carbon dioxide is made under pressure liquid carbonic acid in special devices - saturexes. In the last tightness and avtomatiziation of processes of water supply and carbonic acid, their mixing, and also production of water in pouring have to be provided.
Quality of soft drinks has to meet requirements of the existing standards. Drinks have to be transparent, without deposit and foreign particles. In them the content of salts of heavy metals, arsenic and the preserving substances is not allowed. Content of carbonic acid has to be not less than 0,4% (weight). In all types of soft drinks use of any substitutes and substitutes of sugar (saccharin, Basseterre), except drinks for patients with diabetes in whom it is allowed to use food saccharin instead of sugar is not allowed.
As sweet substances instead of saccharin it is possible to use sorbite or xylitol for preparation of soft drinks of special purpose.
For acidulation of drinks lemon, wine and milk food acids, and are applied to aroma giving - food fruit essences.
When using for preparation of drinks of the sulphited fruit and berry juice the content of sulphurous gas should not exceed 20 mg/l.
Drinks have to possess sufficient firmness at storage: at temperature of 20 ° they have to remain not less than 7 days, and drinks for patients with diabetes - not less than 15 days.
Natural fruit juices
Natural juice represents juice of fresh fruit, berries, fruits without addition of water and sugar. They should not contain impurity of food acids, dyes, the aromatic and preserving substances. Conservation of juice is made by pasteurization, filtering via the sterilizing obesplozhivayushchy filters and other methods. On the quality juice has to meet requirements of standards. Content of salts of copper is allowed no more than 5 mg/l and salts of tin of-100 mg/l.
For improvement of taste of some juice their blending and addition of sugar is allowed. The blended juice is called mix of several juice, and to the main juice add others in number of no more than 35%.
Juice belongs to dietary products, high on the flavoring indicators containing organic acids, vitamins and mineral substances. So, tomato juice contains 0,5 mg of % of carotene and 15 mg of % of ascorbic acid.
In many countries the drinks possessing peculiar taste and good adipsous properties are widespread. Drinks of stake possess also some tonic properties. Consumption of drinks of stake in the United States of America, and also in the countries with hot climate is especially widespread. The most known types of drinks of stake are Pepsi Cola and Coca-Cola.
Significant amount of components, including different essences enters compounding of drinks of stake. Drinks of stake have received the name from the nutlets of stake containing number of the substances possessing the expressed tonic properties.
Nutlets of stake or the guru represent themselves fruits of trees of family sterkuliyevy (S. to acuminata, S. vera, S. vertillata, etc.), growing in tropical Africa and some other tropical countries. Fruits of stake contain alkaloids - caffeine (1,2-2%) and theobromine about 0,01%. Seeds of stake and extracts from them are applied as tonic at overfatigue and as remedy at diseases of the central nervous system.
Stake nutlets were used for preparation of the Coca chocolate intended for strengthening of food of pilots in flight and also athletes during the periods of competitions and the strengthened trainings in recent times.
Pepsi Cola is characterized by peculiar structure.
The main components which are part of drink Pepsi Cola are: complex of different essences, food orthophosphoric acid, caffeine, burned sugar, extract of nuts of stake, sugar, water.
Compoundings of drinks of stake, especially concerning minor components, are exposed to change in the direction of improvement and improvement of structure and flavoring, adipsous properties. However in all cases presence of extract of nuts of stake remains invariable and constant.
Natural mineral waters represent themselves underground waters with the increased content of gases, mineral elements and their connections. Waters in which the general mineralization averages 1 g on 1 l of water belong to mineral.
On the temperature mineral waters are subdivided on cold (to 20 °C), warm, subthermal (20-37 °C), hot, thermal (37 - 42 °C) and very hot, hyper thermal (over 42 °C).
On chemical composition mineral waters happen carbonic, hydrosulphuric, radonic, bromic, ferruterous, iodide, radium.
For the internal use carbonic waters have the greatest value. Mineral waters are characterized by stable structure and represent solution of different salts (muriatic, sulfate, carbonic salts of calcium, magnesium, sodium) and gases (CO2, H2S) in water; many of natural mineral waters contain radon and have radioactivity.
Natural mineral waters have mainly medical purpose, however many of them are used and as table drinks for thirst satisfying. From table mineral waters Narzan (Kislovodsk), Yessentuki No. 20, Berezovsky, Izhevsk, Moscow, Palyustrovsky is most known.
Borjomi, Arzni, Yessentuki No. 4 and No. 17, Slavyaiovskaya and Smirnovskaya (Zheleznovodsk), Naftusya treats medicinal natural mineral waters.
In cases of detection of mineral sources of high efficiency balneological clinics of different capacity will be organized. Usually use of mineral water for internal (drink) and outside (bathtub) application is provided in balneological health resorts. In Russia the original balneological centers is Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region with such cities as Kislovodsk, Yessentuki, Pyatigorsk and Zheleznovodsk.
The Sochi balneological center led by Matsesta possessing powerful source of the mineral water rich with salts and hydrogen sulfide used only for outside application at treatment of various diseases including cardiovascular has world fame. From the foreign balneological centers the world fame was got by Karlovy Vary (Czechoslovakia).
The variety of Karlovy Vary sources provides successful treatment of the most various diseases, especially diseases of gastrointestinal tract, stomach ulcer of stomach and duodenum, liver diseases. High concentration of salts in water of Karlovy Vary sources has allowed to organize the broad extraction of crystal Karlovy Vary salt (Carlsbad salt) which has found world application as medicine and also for preparation of artificial mineral water.
The Vichy mineral water received from carbonic sources in France abroad has wide popularity.
Health control of production of drinks
At sanitary and hygienic control of production of soft drinks pay attention on:
- compliance of GOST of compoundings of drinks;
- sanitary condition of production rooms, equipments;
- organization and reliability of sink and disinfection of pipelines, hoses, tanks, barrels;
- care of sink of bottles with periodic bacteriological control;
- quality of water and compliance to its requirements imposed to drinking water.
Tonics are characterized by availability in the composition of the substances having tonic effect on the central nervous system and cardiovascular activity. Besides, tonics have the stimulating effect on secretion of digestive glands and motor function of stomach and intestines. Tea, coffee and partially chicory belong to tonics. To a certain extent to tonic it is possible to carry also drinks of stake.
Tea represents specially processed leaves of tea plant. The main technology processes at the same time are drying, leaf okruchivaniye, fermentation and drying.
In the course of drying leaves lose elasticity and moisture; number of the chemical transformations connected with the beginning activity of enzymes develops in them.
Twisting of leaf is made by special cars. It is followed by rupture of cellular covers, effluence of cellular juice and wetting of the twisted leaves by it.
Fermentation of the twisted tea leaves - the major process in production of tea. In the course of fermentation the essential oil reporting to tea smell, characteristic of it, is formed; caffeine from connections with tannins is released, and the last in turn turn into pigments. After fermentation tea leaves get brown coloring and aroma inherent to tea.
Drying is the final stage of production of tea. Under the influence of drying in tea leaves enzymes collapse, and their further activity stops, and also moisture which content is carried to 4% is removed. After drying tea gains characteristic black color of ready-made product. Further tea is exposed to sorting for definition of grade of tea.
Thus receive grades of long leaf black tea. Except black tea, long leaf green tea is developed. In technology production of the last processes of drying and fermentation in this connection in green tea the chlorophyll and tannins remain are switched off. Green tea is characterized by availability of strong aroma, bitter, astringent taste and strong exciting action.
Physiological effect of tea as tonic is defined by the content in it of caffeine, essential tea oil and the tannins including catechins.
Caffeine contains in long leaf black tea in number of 2,5-3%, in its green 1,6-2,3%. In tea caffeine is in connection with tannins. It has exciting effect on the central nervous system and on warm activity, increasing arterial pressure. Caffeine of tea exerts also stimulating impact on cerebration, aggravating process of thinking.
Essential oil contains in tea in very insignificant quantity (in svezhefermentirovanny leaves of tea about 0,006%), but sufficient to show the aromatic properties. Essential tea oil has exciting effect on organism, supplementing effect of caffeine.
Tannins - tannins - define flavoring properties of tea. Content of tannins in tea averages 8-15%. Than the content of tannins is higher, especially the astringent taste of tea is expressed.
As a part of tannins of tea there are teatanin in connection with caffeine, and also teakatekhina possessing properties of vitamin P. Black tea contains about 58 mg of % of ascorbic acid. The combination in tea of ascorbic acid to P-active catechins creates very active complex in the biological relation.
Organic acids in tea are provided mainly oxalic and lemon. Contains in long leaf black tea oxalic acid of 0,23-0,83% and citric acid of 0,75-1,08%.
Coloring of infusion of tea depends on presence at tea of pigments which are product of disintegration of tannins and represent the oxidized polyphenols by the chemical nature.
Long leaf black tea has to contain extractive substances not less than 32%, tannins - not less than 7%, caffeine - not less than 2%.
The main components of coffee defining properties of coffee as drink are caffeine and chlorogenic acid. Content of caffeine in grains of coffee makes 0,6-2,4%. Chlorogenic acid contains in coffee grains in number of about 7%; its presence substantially causes bitter taste of some grades of coffee.
In coffee there is also kofeypo-tannic acid which amount reaches 4-8% and more.
Contain in grains of coffee:
- fats - 10-13%
- albumens - 2,5%
- sucrose - 5-10%
- pentosans - 5,7%
- cellulose - 24%
Essential changes in grains of coffee happen at their roasting. They lose about 18% of the weight, increase in volume, change color and aroma.
Color of infusion of coffee is explained by education in grains at their frying of karamelan from sugar at its caramelization.
Aroma of fried coffee is caused by availability in it kafeolya. In fried coffee number of the substances reporting inherent coffee aroma are formed. The complex of these substances is known under the name kafeol. The main components kafeolya are furfurolovy alcohol, acetic acid, acetone and hydroxy-aceton, pyridine, phenols.
About 30% of components of fried coffee are dissolved in hot water and forms thus dense drink.
The main substance of coffee - caffeine - has exciting effect on the central nervous system, stimulating working capacity, and on functional ability of cardiovascular system, increasing frequency and increasing energy of warm reductions.
Persons with the broken condition of cardiovascular system under the influence of coffee can have heartbeat and pain. In this regard in production of coffee grades, partially or completely exempted from caffeine are provided. Removal of caffeine is made by processing of crude coffee grains by superheated steam and the subsequent extraction of caffeine any solvent (chloroform, benzene). The coffee exempted from caffeine concedes in the flavoring relation to usual grades of coffee a little.
Coffee, soluble without deposit, represents the dried-up water extract of natural coffee. Important process of receiving instant coffee is extract preparation. Extraction is made in the special extraction installations consisting of 6 extractors. Passing of liquid through 6 extractors using certain modes of temperature and pressure allows to extract most fully from coffee its extractive substances and as much as possible to enrich with them the liquid passing through extractors.
Drying of extract is made by raspylitelny method in special drying installations of forsunochny type. The dried-up powder of instant coffee has to have humidity no more than 5,5%. Powder of instant coffee is extremely hygroscopic and when moistening loses the commodity value.
In this regard all subsequent stages of packaging and storage of instant coffee have to be carried out with strict observance of protection against moistening. Packaging of instant coffee is made in rooms with the conditioned air in which temperature 18-20 ° and the relative humidity which is not exceeding 40 ° is maintained.
Package instant coffee only in the tin, pressurized boxes. Instant coffee is issued also in small (on 2,5 g) packaging in the pressurized packages consisting of the foil covered with polyethylene and varnish with the soldered seams.
Instant coffee corresponds to the drink received from natural coffee. Drink from instant coffee loses aromatic properties and content of caffeine a little. It can be recommended to elderly people more than natural coffee.
The coffee used in some grades as additive chicory incorporates to 14-17% of inulin, and also glucoside the intybine (0,032-0,186%) reporting to chicory bitter taste.
In the course of roasting in chicory the inherent aroma reporting to it is formed tsikoreol (in number of 0,08-0,1%). Tsikoreol has much in common with kafeoly. In the tsikoreol as well as in the kafeol, there are furfural and furfurolovy alcohol, valerianic acid.
It is more soluble substances in fried chicory, than in fried coffee. Their quantity reaches 60-78% that provides dense infusion.
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